Advertisement

Forward Simulation for Data Refinement of Classes

  • Ana Cavalcanti
  • David A. Naumann
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2391)

Abstract

Simulation is the most widely used technique to prove data refinement. We define forward simulation for a language with recursive classes, inheritance, type casts and tests, dynamic binding, class based visibility, mutable state (without aliasing), and specification constructs from refinement calculi. It is a language based on sequential Java, but it also includes specification and deseign mechanisms appropriate for the construction of programs based on refinement. We show simulation to be sound for data refinement of classes in this language.

Keywords

object-orientation data refinement soundness of simulation program analysis and verification 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Martín Abadi and K. Rustan M. Leino. A logic of object-oriented programs. In Proceedings, TAPSOFT 1997. Springer-Verlag, 1997. Expanded in DEC SRC report 161.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. J. R. Back. Procedural Abstraction in the Refinement Calculus. Technical report, Department of Computer Science, Åbo-Finland, 1987. Ser. A No. 55.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. J. R. Back and J. Wright. Refinement Calculus: A Systematic Introduction. Graduate Texts in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag, 1998.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anindya Banerjee and David Naumann. Representation independence, confinement and access control. In POPL2002, pages 166–177, 2001.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Martin Büchi and Wolfgang Weck. The greybox approach: When blackbox specifications hide too much. Technical Report 297, Turku Center for Computer Science, August 1999. http://www.abo.fi/~mbuechi/publications/TR297.html.
  6. 6.
    A. L. C. Cavalcanti and D. Naumann. A Weakest Precondition Semantics for an Object-oriented Language of Refinement. In J. M. Wing, J. C. P. Woodcock, and J. Davies, editors, FM’99: World Congress on Formal Methods, volume 1709 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 1439–1459. Springer-Verlag, September 1999.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. L. C. Cavalcanti and D. A. Naumann. A Weakest Precondition Semantics for Refinement of Object-oriented Programs. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 26(8):713–728, August 2000.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. L. C. Cavalcanti and D. A. Naumann. Forward Simulation for Data Refinement of Classes-Extended Version. Technical Report 2001-4, Computer Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, 2001. http://www.cs.stevens-tech.edu/~naumann/tr2001-4.ps.
  9. 9.
    A. L. C. Cavalcanti and David A. Naumann. On a specification-oriented model for object-orientation. In Proceedings of the VI Brazilian Symposium on Programming Languares, 2002. To appear.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. L. C. Cavalcanti, A. C. A. Sampaio, and J. C. P. Woodcock. Procedures and Recursion in the Refinement Calculus. Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society, 5(1):1–15, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Willem-Paul de Roever and Kai Engelhardt. Data Refinement: Model-Oriented Proof Methods and their Comparison. Cambridge University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    David L. Detlefs, K. Rustan M. Leino, Greg Nelson, and James B. Saxe. Extended static checking. Technical Report Report 159, Compaq Systems Research Center, December 1998.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martin Fowler. Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code. Addison-Wesley, 1999.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. H. B. Gardiner and C. C. Morgan. Data Refinement of Predicate Transformers. Theoretical Computer Science, 87:143–162, 1991.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. He, C. A. R. Hoare, and J. W. Sanders. Prespecification in Data Refinement. Information Processing Letters, 25(1), 1987.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. A. R. Hoare. Proof of Correctness of Data Representations. Acta Informatica, 1:271–281, 1972.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. A. R. Hoare, J. He, and A. Sampaio. Normal form approach to compiler design. Acta Informatica, 30:701–739, 1993.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Samin Ishtiaq and Peter W. O’Hearn. BI as an assertion language for mutable data structures. In POPL. ACM Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. B. Jones. Software Development: A Rigorous Approach. Prentice-Hall, 1980.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. T. Leavens and W. E. Weihl. Specification and verification of object-oriented programas using supertype abstraction. Acta Informatica, 32, 1995.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gary T. Leavens, K. Rustan M. Leino, Erik Poll, Clyde Ruby, and Bart Jacobs. JML: notations and tools supporting detailed design in Java. In OOPSLA 2000 Companion, Minneapolis, Minnesota, pages 105–106. ACM, October 2000.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gary T. Leavens and Don Pigozzi. A complete algebraic characterization of behavioral subtyping. Acta Informatica, 36:617–663, 2000.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.R.M Leino, A. Poetzsch-Heffter, and Y. Zhou. Using data groups to specify and check side effects. In Programming Language Design and Implementation 2002, 2002. To appear.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. H. Liskov and J. M. Wing. A Behavioural Notion of Subtyping. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 16(6), 1994.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nancy Lynch and Frits Vaandrager. Forward and backward simulations part I: Untimed systems. Information and Computation, 121(2), 1995.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. C. Morgan. Programming from Specifications. Prentice-Hall, 2nd edition, 1994.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. C. Morgan and P. H. B. Gardiner. Data Refinement by Calculation. Acta Informatica, 27(6):481–503, 1990.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. Müller. Modular Specification and Verification of Object-Oriented Programs. PhD thesis, FernUniversität Hagen, 2001. Available from http://www.informatik.fernuni-hagen.de/pi5/publications.html.
  29. 29.
    David A. Naumann. Soundness of data refinement for a higher order imperative language. Theoretical Computer Science, 278(1–2):271–301, 2002.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gordon Plotkin. Lambda definability and logical relations. Technical Report SAI-RM-4, University of Edinburgh, School of Artificial Intelligence, 1973.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Poetzsch-Heffter and P. Müller. A programming logic for sequential Java. In S. D. Swierstra, editor, Programming Languages and Systems (ESOP’ 99), volume 1576 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 162–176. Springer-Verlag, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    John Power and Edmund Robinson. Logical relations and data abstraction. In Computer Science Logic, 2000.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    U. S. Reddy. Objects and classes in Algol-like languages. In Fifth Intern. Workshop on Foundations of Object-oriented Languages, Jan 1998. Full version to appear in Information and Computation.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    John C. Reynolds. Intuitionistic reasoning about shared mutable data structure. In Millenial Perspectives in Computer Science. Palgrave, 2001.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Clemens Szyperski. Component Software: Beyond Object-Oriented Programming. ACM Press Books. Addison-Wesley, 1999.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. D. Tennent. Correctness of data representations in Algol-like languages. In A. W. Roscoe, editor, A Classical Mind: Essays Dedicated to C A. R. Hoare. Prentice-Hall, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Cavalcanti
    • 1
  • David A. Naumann
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de InformáticaUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecife PEBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceStevens Institute of TechnologyHobokenUSA

Personalised recommendations