User Focus in Consumer Terminals and Conditionally Guaranteed Budgets

  • Reinder J. Bril
  • E. F. M. Steffens
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2092)


Media processing in software enables consumer terminals to become open and flexible. Because consumer products are heavily resource constrained, this processing is required to be cost-effective. Our QoS approach aims at costeffective media processing in software. QoS resource management is based on multilevel control, corresponding to different time-horizons, and resource allocation below worst-case using periodic budgets provided by a budget scheduler.

Multilevel control combined with budgets below worst-case gives rise to a problem related to user focus. Upon a sudden increase in load of an application with user focus, its output will have a quality dip. To resolve this user focus problem, we present the novel concept of a conditionally guaranteed budget (CGB). A feasible extension of our budget scheduler with CGBs is briefly described.


Quality Level Very Long Instruction Word Resource Budget Admission Test User Focus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Audsley, N.C., Burns, A., Richardson, M.F., Wellings, A.J.: Incorporating unbounded algorithms into predictable real-time systems, Computer Systems Science & Engineering8(2): 80–89, April 1993.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aurrecoecha, C., Campbell, A., Hauw, L.: A Survey of QoS Architectures, ACM/Springer-Verlag Multimedia Systems Journal, 6(3): 138–151, May 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bril, R.J., Gabrani, M., Hentschel, C., van Loo, G.C., Steffens, E.F.M.: QoS for consumer terminals and its support for product families, To appear in: Proc. International Conference on Media Futures (ICMF), Florence, Italy, May, 2001.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caccamo, M., Buttazzo, G., Sha, L.: Capacity Sharing for Overrun Control, In: Proc. of the 21st Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), Orlando, Florida, pp. 295–304, November27-30, 2000.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gelissen, J.H.A.: The ITEA project EUROPA, To appear in: Proc. International Conference on Media Futures (ICMF), Florence, Italy, May 2001.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Glaskowsky, P.N.: Philips Advances TriMedia Architecture-New CPU64 Core Aimed at Digital Video Market, Microdesign Resources, 12(14): 33–35, October 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hentschel, C., Gabrani, M., Bril, R.J., Steffens, L.: Scalable video algorithms and Qualityof-Service resource management for consumer terminals, To appear in: Digest of Technical Papers IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Los Angeles, CA, USA, June 2001.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Joseph, M., Pandya, P.: Finding response times in a real-time system, The Computer Journal, 29(5):390–395, 1986.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klein, M.H., Ralya, T., Pollak, B., Obenza, R., González Harbour, M.: A Practitioner’s Handbook for Real-Time Analysis: Guide to Rate Monotonic Analysis for Real-Time Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee, C., Rajkumar, R., Mercer, C.: Experiences with Processor Reservation and Dynamic QoS in Real-Time Mach, In: Proc. of Multimedia Japan, March 1996.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee, C., Lehoczky, J., Rajkumar, R., Siewiorek, D.: On Quality of Service Optimization with Discrete QoS Options, In: Proc. of the 5th IEEE Real-time Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), Vancouver, Canada, pp. 276–286, June 1999.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lippens, P., De Loore, B., de Haan, G., Eeckhout, P., Huijgen, H., Löning, A., McSweeney, B., Verstraelen, M., Pham, B., Kettenis, J.: A video signal processor for motion-compensated field-rate upconversion in consumer television, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 31(11): 1762–1769, November 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu, C.L., Layland, J.W.: Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard real-time environment, JACM 20(1): 46–61, January 1973.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    van Loo, S., Steffens, L., Derwig, R.: Quality of Service Resource Management in consumer Terminals, Philips Research Laboratories Eindhoven (PRLE), Doc. id. NL-MS21166, available from, May 2001.
  15. 15.
    Mercer, C.W., Savage, S. Tokuda, H.: Processor Capability Reserves: Operating System Support for Multimedia Applications, In: Proc. of the International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), pp. 90-99, May 1994.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nahrstedt, K., Chu, H. Narayan, S.: QoS-aware Resource Management for Distributed Multimedia Applications, Journal on High-Speed Networking, Special Issue on Multimedia Networking, IOS Press, Vol. 8, No.3-4, pp. 227–255, 1998.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ott, M., Michelitsch, G., Reininger, D. Welling, G.: An architecture for adaptive QoS and its application to multimedia systems design, Computer Communications, 21(4): 334–349,1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peng, S.: Complexity scalable video decoding via IDCT data pruning, To appear in: Digest of Technical Papers IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Los Angeles, CA, USA, June 2001.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rajkumar, R., Juvva, K., Molano, A., Oikawa, S.: Resource Kernels: A Resource-Centric Approach to Real-Time and Multimedia Systems, In: Proc. of the SPIE/ACM Conference on Multimedia Computing and Networking, January 1998.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sha, L., Lehoczky, J., Rajkumar, R.: Solutions for some practical problems in prioritized preemptive scheduling, In: Proc. of the 7th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 181–191, December 1986.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sprunt, B., Sha, L. Lehoczky, J.P.: Aperiodic Task Scheduling for Hard Real-Time Systems, The Journal of Real-Time Systems 1: 27–60, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhong, Z., Chen, Y.: Scaling in MPEG-2 decoding loop with mixed processing, To appear in: Digest of Technical Papers IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Los Angeles, CA, USA, June 2001.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinder J. Bril
    • 1
  • E. F. M. Steffens
    • 1
  1. 1.Philips Research Laboratories Eindhoven (PRLE)EindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations