Advertisement

UPPAAL - Now, Next, and Future

  • Tobias Amnell
  • Gerd Behrmann
  • Johan Bengtsson
  • Pedro R. D’Argenio
  • Alexandre David
  • Ansgar Fehnker
  • Thomas Hune
  • Bertrand Jeannet
  • Kim G. Larsen
  • M. Oliver Möller
  • Paul Pettersson
  • Carsten Weise
  • Wang Yi
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2067)

Abstract

Uppaal is a tool for modeling, simulation and verification of real-time systems, developed jointly by BRICS at Aalborg University and the Department of Computer Systems at Uppsala University. The tool is appropriate for systems that can be modeled as a collection of non-deterministic processes with finite control structure and real-valued clocks, communicating through channels or shared variables. Typical application areas include real-time controllers and communication protocols, in particular those where timing aspects are critical.

This paper reports on the currently available version and summarizes developments during the last two years. We report on new directions that extends Uppaal with cost-optimal exploration, parametric modeling, stop-watches, probablistic modeling, hierachical modeling, executable timed automata, and a hybrid automata animator. We also report on recent work to improve the efficiency of the tool. In particular, we outline Clock Difference Diagrams (CDDs), new compact representations of states, a distributed version of the tool, and application of dynamic partitioning.

Uppaal has been applied in a number of academic and industrial case studies. We describe a selection of the recent case studies.

Keywords

Model Check Symbolic State Hybrid Automaton Reachability Analysis Local Clock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [ACD93]
    Rajeev Alur, Costas Courcoubetis, and David Dill. Model Checking in Dense Real Time. Information and Computation, 104:2–34, 1993.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. [ACH+92]
    Rajeev Alur, Costas Courcoubetis, Nicolas Halbwachs, David Dill, and Howard Wong-Toi. Minimization of Timed Transition Systems. In Proc. of CONCUR’ 92, Theories of Concurrency: Unification an d Extension, pages 340–354, 1992.Google Scholar
  3. [AHV93]
    Rajeev Alur, Thomas A. Henzinger, and Moshe Y. Vardi. Parametric Real-time Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing, pages 592–601, 1993.Google Scholar
  4. [AJ01]
    Tobias Amnell and Pontus Jansson. Report from astec-rt auto project-central locking system case study. In preparation, 2001.Google Scholar
  5. [AW99]
    Rajeev Alur and Bow-Yaw Wang. “Next” Heuristic for On-the-fly Model Checking. In Proc. of CONCUR’ 99: Concurrency Theory, number 1664 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 98–113. Springer-Verlag, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. [BDM+98]
    Marius Bozga, Conrado Daws, Oded Maler, Alfredo Olivero, Stavros Tripakis, and Sergio Yovine. Kronos: A model-Checking Tool for Real-Time Systems. In Proc. of the 10th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verification, number 1427 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 546–550. Springer-Verlag, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [BFH+]
    Gerd Behrmann, Ansgar Fehnker, Thomas Hune, Kim G. Larsen, Paul Pettersson, and Judi Romijn. Efficient Guiding Towards Cost-Optimality in uppaal. Accepted for publication in TACAS’2001.Google Scholar
  8. [BFH+00]
    Gerd Behrmann, Ansgar Fehnker, Thomas Hune, Kim G. Larsen, Paul Pettersson, Judi Romijn, and Frits Vaandrager. Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata. Submitted for publication. Available at http://www.docs.uu.se/docs/rtmv/papers/-bfhlprv-sub00-1.ps.gz, 2000.
  9. [BHV00.
    ]_ Gerd Behrmann, Thomas Hune, and Frits Vaandrager. Distributing Timed Model Checking-How the Search Order Matters. In Proc. of the 12th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verification, number 1855 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 216–231. Springer-Verlag, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [BJLY98]
    Johan Bengtsson, Bengt Jonsson, Johan Lilius, and Wang Yi. Partial Order Reductions for Timed Systems. In Proc. of CONCUR’ 98: Concurrency Theory, number 1466 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [BLP+99]
    Gerd Behrmann, Kim G. Larsen, Justin Pearson, Carsten Weise, and Wang Yi. Efficient Timed Reachability Analysis Using Clock Difference Diagrams. In Proc. of the 11th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verification, number 1633 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [BRJ98]
    Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh, and Ivar Jacobson. The Unified Modeling Language User Guide. Addison-Wesley, 1998.Google Scholar
  13. [Bry86]
    Randal E. Bryant. Graph-Based Algorithms for Boolean-Function Manipulation. IEEE Trans. on Computers, C-35(8):677–691, August 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [BSdRT01]
    Giosuè Bandini, R. F. Lutje Spelberg, R. C. M. de Rooij, and W. J. Toetenel. Application of Parametric Model Checking-The Root Contention Protocol. In Proc. of the 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-34), 2001.Google Scholar
  15. [CC77]
    Patrick Cousot and Radhia Cousot. Abstract Interpretation: a Unified Lattice Model for Static Analysis of Programs by Construction or Approximation of Fixpoints. Proc. of the 4th ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, January 1977.Google Scholar
  16. [CL00]
    Franck Cassez and Kim G. Larsen. The Impressive Power of Stopwatches. In Proc. of CONCUR’ 2000: Concurrency Theory, number 1877 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 138–152. Springer-Verlag, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [DY00]
    Alexandre David and Wang Yi. Modelling and Analysis of a Commercial Field Bus Protocol. In Proc. of 12th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pages 165–172. IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2000.Google Scholar
  18. [EWY99]
    Christer Ericsson, Anders Wall, and Wang Yi. Timed Automata as Task Models for Eventdriven Systems. In Proceedings of RTSCA 99. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  19. [Feh99]
    Ansgar Fehnker. Scheduling a Steel Plant with Timed Automata. In Proc. of the 6th International Conference on Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA99), pages 280–286. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  20. [Har87]
    David Harel. Statecharts: A Visual Formalism for Complex Systems. Science of Computer Programming, 8:231–274, 1987.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. [HHWT97]
    Thomas A. Henzinger, Pei-Hsin Ho, and Howard Wong-Toi. HyTech: A Model Checker for Hybrid Systems. In Orna Grumberg, editor, Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verification, number 1254 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 460–463. Springer-Verlag, 1997.Google Scholar
  22. [HJ94]
    Hans A. Hansson and Bengt Jonsson. A Logic for Reasoning about Time and Reliability. Formal Aspects of Computing, 6:512–535, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [HLP00]
    Thomas Hune, Kim G. Larsen, and Paul Pettersson. Guided Synthesis of Control Programs Using uppaal. In Ten H. Lai, editor, Proc. of the IEEE ICDCS International Workshop on Distributed Systems Verification and Validation, pages E15–E22. IEEE Computer Society Press, April 2000.Google Scholar
  24. [Hun99]
    Thomas Hune. Modelling a Real-time Language. In Proceedings of FMICS, 1999.Google Scholar
  25. [IKL+00]
    Torsten K. Iversen, Kåre J. Kristoffersen, Kim G. Larsen, Morten Laursen, Rune G. Madsen, Steffen K. Mortensen, Paul Pettersson, and Chris B. Thomasen. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs-Verifying LEGO Mindstorms Systems Using uppaal. In Proc. of 12th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pages 147–155. IEEE Computer Society Press, June 2000.Google Scholar
  26. [Jea]
    Bertrand Jeannet. Dynamic Partitioning in Linear Relation Analysis. Application to the Verification of Reactive Systems. to appear in Formal Methods and System Design, Kluwer Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. [Jea00]
    Bertrand Jeannet. Partitionnement dynamique dans l’analyse de relations linéaires et application à la vérification de programmes synchrones. PhD thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, September 2000.Google Scholar
  28. [Jen96]
    Henrik E. Jensen. Model Checking Probabilistic Real Time Systems. In B. Bjerner, M. Larsson, and B. Nordström, editors, Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Workshop on Programming Theory, Göteborg Sweden, Report 86, pages 247–261. Chalmers University of Technolog, 1996.Google Scholar
  29. [JHR99]
    Bertrand Jeannet, Nicolas Halbwachs, and Pascal Raymond. Dynamic Partitioning in Analyses of Numerical Properties. In Static Analysis Symposium, SAS’99, Venezia (Italy), September 1999.Google Scholar
  30. [KLPW99]
    Kåre Kristoffersen, Kim G. Larsen, Paul Pettersson, and Carsten Weise. Vhs Case Study 1-experimental Batch Plant using uppaal. BRICS, University of Aalborg, Denmark, http://www.cs.auc.dk/research/-FS/VHS/cs1uppaal.ps.gz, May 1999.Google Scholar
  31. [KNSS99]
    Marta Z. Kwiatkowska, Gethin Norman, Roberto Segala, and Jeremy Sproston. Automatic Verification of Real-Time Systems with Probability Distributions. In J.-P. Katoen, editor, Proceedings of the 5th AMAST Workshop on Real-Time and Probabilistic System, Bamberg, Germany, number 1601 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 75–95. Springer-Verlag, 1999. An extended version will appear in Theoretical Computer Science.Google Scholar
  32. [Lam87]
    Leslie Lamport. A Fast Mutual Exclusion Algorithm. ACM Trans. on Computer Systems, 5(1):1–11, February 1987. Also appeared as SRC Research Report 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [LAM99]
    Kristina Lundqvist, Lars Asplund, and Stephen Michell. A Formal Model of the Ada Ravenscar Tasking Profile; Protected Objects. In Springer-Verlag, editor, Proc. of the Ada Europe Conference, pages 12–25, 1999.Google Scholar
  34. [LBB+01]
    Kim G. Larsen, Gerd Behrmann, Ed Brinksma, Ansgar Fehnker, Thomas Hune, Paul Pettersson, and Judi Romijn. As Cheap as Possible: Efficient Cost-Optimal Reachability for Priced Timed Automata. Submitted for publication, 2001.Google Scholar
  35. [LLPY97]
    Fredrik Larsson, Kim G. Larsen, Paul Pettersson, and Wang Yi. Efficient Verification of Real-Time Systems: Compact Data Structures and State-Space Reduction. In Proc. of the 18th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pages 14–24. IEEE Computer Society Press, December 1997.Google Scholar
  36. [LNAB+98]
    Jørn Lind-Nielsen, Henrik Reif Andersen, Gerd Behrmann, Henrik Hulgaard, Kåre J. Kristoffersen, and Kim G. Larsen. Verification of Large State/Event Systems Using Compositionality and Dependency Analysis. In Bernard Steffen, editor, Proc. of the 4th Workshop on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, number 1384 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 201–216. Springer-Verlag, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [LP97]
    Henrik Lönn and Paul Pettersson. Formal Verification of a TDMA Protocol Startup Mechanism. In Proc. of the Pacific Rim Int. Symp. on Fault-Tolerant Systems, pages 235–242, December 1997.Google Scholar
  38. [LPY97]
    Kim G. Larsen, Paul Pettersson, and Wang Yi. Uppaal in a Nutshell. Int. Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 1(1-2):134–152, October 1997.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [LWYP99]
    Kim G. Larsen, Carsten Weise, Wang Yi, and Justin Pearson. Clock Difference Diagrams. Nordic Journal of Computing, 6(3):271–298, 1999.zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  40. [Min00]
    Antoine Miné. The Numerical Domain of Octagons and Application to the Automatic Analysis of Programs. Master’s thesis, École Normale Supérieure de Paris, 2000.Google Scholar
  41. [Pet99]
    Paul Pettersson. Modelling and Analysis of Real-Time Systems Using Timed Automata: Theory and Practice. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Systems, Uppsala University, February 1999.Google Scholar
  42. [PS80]
    Wolfgang J. Paul and Janos Simon. Decision Trees and Random Access Machines. In Logic and Algorithmic, volume 30 of Monographie de L’Enseignement Mathématique, pages 331–340. L’Enseignement Mathématique, Université de Genève, 1980.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  43. [SD97]
    Ulrich Stern and David L. Dill. Parallelizing the Murø Verifier. In Orna Grumberg, editor, Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verification, volume 1254 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 256–267. Springer-Verlag, June 1997. Haifa, Isreal, June 22-25.Google Scholar
  44. [ST98]
    Karsten Strehl and Lothar Thiele. Symbolic Model Checking of Process Networks Using Interval Diagram Techniques. In Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD-98), pages 686–692, 1998.Google Scholar
  45. [Yov97]
    Sergio Yovine. Kronos: A verification Tool for Real-Time Systems. Springer International Journal of Software Tools for Technology Transfer, 1(1/2), October 1997.Google Scholar
  46. [YPD94]
    Wang Yi, Paul Pettersson, and Mats Daniels. Automatic Verification of Real-Time Communicating Systems By Constraint-Solving. In Dieter Hogrefe and Stefan Leue, editors, Proc. of the 7th Int. Conf. on Formal Description Techniques, pages 223–238. North-Holland, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tobias Amnell
    • 1
  • Gerd Behrmann
    • 2
  • Johan Bengtsson
    • 1
  • Pedro R. D’Argenio
    • 3
  • Alexandre David
    • 1
  • Ansgar Fehnker
    • 4
  • Thomas Hune
    • 5
  • Bertrand Jeannet
    • 2
  • Kim G. Larsen
    • 2
  • M. Oliver Möller
    • 5
  • Paul Pettersson
    • 1
  • Carsten Weise
    • 6
  • Wang Yi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyUppsala UniversitySweden
  2. 2.Basic Research in Computer ScienceAalborg UniversityDenmark
  3. 3.Faculty of Computer ScienceUniversity of TwenteThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Computing Science InstituteUniversity of NijmegenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Basic Research in Computer ScienceAarhus UniversityDenmark
  6. 6.Ericsson EurolabDeutschland GmbHGermany

Personalised recommendations