Deploying an Active Voice Application on a Three-Level Active Network Node Architecture

  • Georg Carle
  • Henning Sanneck
  • Sebastian Zander
  • Long Le
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2207)


Active networks have been recently highlighted as a key enabling technology to obtain immense flexibility in terms of network deployment, configurability, and customized packet processing. However, this flexibility is often achieved at the cost of router performance. In this paper, we present a three-level node architecture that combines flexibility and high performance of network nodes. We design and implement an active network application for real-time speech transmissions on top of this three-level platform. In our application, plug-in modules are downloaded onto certain network nodes to monitor packet loss rate of voice streams and to perform application-specific packet processing when necessary. In particular, we propose to perform loss concealment algorithms for voice data streams at active network nodes to regenerate lost packets. The regenerated speech data streams are robust enough to tolerate further packet losses along the data path so that the concealment algorithms at another downstream node or at the receiver can still take effect. We call our approach reactive concealment for speech transmission to distinguish it from concealment performed at the receiver and also proactive schemes like Forward Error Correction. Our approach is bandwidth-efficient and retains the applications’ end-to-end semantics.


Network Node Mobile Agent Active Node Forward Error Correction Packet Loss Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. [AMZ95]
    E. Amer, S. McCanne, and H. Zhang. An Application Level Video Gateway. Proceedings of ACM Multimedia’95, San Francisco, CA, November 1995.Google Scholar
  2. [BANG]
    Hitachi, GMD Fokus. Broadband Active Network Generation (BANG),, September 2000.
  3. [BBC98]
    S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss. An Architecture for Differentiated Services. IETF RFC 2475, December 1998.Google Scholar
  4. [BET98]
    A. Banchs, W. Effelsberg, C. Tschudin, and V. Turau. Multicasting Multimedia Streams with Active Networks. In Proceedings IEEE Local Computer Network Conference LCN 98, Boston, MA, Oct 11–14, 1998, pp. 150–159.Google Scholar
  5. [BCZ97]
    S. Bhattacharjee, K. L. Calvert, and E. W. Zegura. An Architecture for Active Networking. High Performance Networking (HPN 97), White Plains, NY, April 1997.Google Scholar
  6. [BKGM00]
    J. Border, M. Kojo, Jim Griner, G. Montenegro. Performance Enhancing Proxies, IETF Internet Draft <draft-ietf-pilc-pep-02.txt>, March 2000.Google Scholar
  7. [BVKV00]
    J. Bitwas, J. Vicente, M. Kounavis, D. Villela, M. Lerner, S. Yoshizawa and S. Denazis. Proposal for IP L-Interface Architecture, Draft IEEE P1520, January 2000.Google Scholar
  8. [CKVV99]
    A. T. Campbell, M. E. Kounavis, J. Vicente, D. Villela, K. Miki, and H. De Meer. A Survey of Programmable Networks, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, Vol. 29No. 2 pg. 7–24, April 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [FAIN]
    Hitachi, GMD, UCL, ETH Zürich et. al., FAIN–Future Active IP Networks, IST project,, work in progress.
  10. [FMSB98]
    D. C. Feldmeier, A. J. McAuley, J.M. Smith, D. S. Bakin, W. S. Marcus, T. M. Raleigh. Protocol Boosters, IEEE JSAC, April 1998.Google Scholar
  11. [GPLD00]
    A. Galis, B. Plattner, E. Moeller, J. Laarhuis, S. Denazis, C. Klein, J. Serrat, G. T. Karetsos, C. Todd. A Flexible IP Active Networks Architecture, IWAN 2000 Conference, October 2000.Google Scholar
  12. [GS85]
    J. Gruber and L. Strawczynski. Subjective Effects of Variable Delay and Speech Clipping in Dynamically Managed Voice Systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-33(8), August 1985.Google Scholar
  13. [ITU98]
    Objective Quality Measurement of Telephone-Band (300-3400 Hz) Speech Codecs. ITU-T Recommendation P.861, February 1998.Google Scholar
  14. [KCD00]
    R. Keller, S. Choi, D. Decasper, M. Dasen, G. Fankhauser, B. Plattner. An Active Router Architecture for Multicast Video Distribution. Proceedings IEEE Infocom 2000, Tel Aviv, Israel, March 2000.Google Scholar
  15. [LDVS99]
    P. Lin, S. Denazis, J. Vicente, M. Suzuki, J. P. Redlich, F. Cuervo, J. Biswas, W. Weiguo, K. Miki, J. Gutierrez. Programming Interfaces for IP Routers and Switches, an Architectural Framework Document, IEEE P1520/TS/IP-003, June 1999.Google Scholar
  16. [LSCH00]
    L. Le, H. Sanneck, G. Carle, and T. Hoshi. Active Concealment for Internet Speech Transmission, IWAN 2000 Conference, October 2000.Google Scholar
  17. [MHMS98]
    W. S. Marcus, I. Hadzic, A. J. McAuley, and J. M. Smith. Protocol Boosters: Applying Programmability to Network Infrastructure, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 36,no. 10, pp. 79–83, Oct. 1998.Google Scholar
  18. [P1520]
    Proposed IEEE Standard for Application Programming Interfaces for Networks,
  19. [RBWYK00]
    M. Raguparan, J. Biswas, W. Weiguo, S. Yoshizawa, A. Karlcut, “L+ Interface for Routers that Supports Differentiated Services”, IEEE P1520/TS/IP-012, January 2000.Google Scholar
  20. [RFC2063]
    N. Brownlee, C. Mills, G. Ruth: „Traffic Flow Measurement: Architecture”, RFC2063, January 1997.Google Scholar
  21. [Russ00]
    P. Russel: “Linux 2.4 Packet Filtering HOWTO”,, May 2000.
  22. [Sann98]
    H. Sanneck. Adaptive Loss Concealment for Internet Telephony Applications. Proceedings INET’98, Geneva/Switzerland, July 1998.Google Scholar
  23. [TSS97]
    D. Tennenhouse, J. Smith, D. Sincoskie, D. Wetherall, G. Minden. A Survey of Active Network Research. IEEE Communications, January 1997.Google Scholar
  24. [YKY99]
    W. Yang, K. R. Krishnamachari, and R. Yantorno. Improvement of the MBSD by Scaling Noise Masking Threshold and Correlation Analysis with MOS Difference instead of MOS. IEEE Speech Coding Workshop, 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg Carle
    • 1
  • Henning Sanneck
    • 1
  • Sebastian Zander
    • 1
  • Long Le
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.GMD FokusBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations