Parallel Implementation of a Large-Scale 3-D Air Pollution Model
Air pollution models can efficiently be used in different environmental studies. The atmosphere is the most dynamic component of the environment, where the pollutants can be transported over very long distances. Therefore the models must be defined on a large space domain. Moreover, all relevant physical and chemical processes must be adequately described. This leads to huge computational tasks. That is why it is difficult to handle numerically such models even on the most powerful up-to-date supercomputers.
The particular model used in this study is the Danish Eulerian Model. The numerical methods used in the advection-diffusion part of this model consist of finite elements (for discretizing the spatial derivatives) followed by predictor-corrector schemes with several different correctors (in the numerical treatment of the resulting systems of ordinary differential equations). Implicit methods for the solution of stiff systems of ordinary differential equations are used in the chemistry part. This implies the use of Newton-like iterative methods. A special sparse matrix technique is applied in order to increase the efficiency. The model is constantly updated with new faster and more accurate numerical methods. The three-dimensional version of the Danish Eulerian Model is presented in this work. The model is defined on a space domain of 4800 km x 4800 km that covers the whole of Europe together with parts of Asia, Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A chemical scheme with 35 species is used in this version. Two parallel implementations are discussed; the first one for shared memory parallel computers, the second one - the newly developed version for distributed memory computers. Standard tools are used to achieve parallelism: OpenMP for shared memory computers and MPI for distributed memory computers. Results from many experiments, which were carried out on a SUN SMP cluster and on a CRAY T3E at the Edinburgh Parallel Computer Centre (EPCC), are presented and analyzed.
Keywordsair pollution model system of PDE’s parallel algorithm shared memory computer distributed memory computer OpenMP MPI
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