Advertisement

Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

  • Pulickel M. Ajayan
  • Otto Z. Zhou
Part of the Topics in Applied Physics book series (TAP, volume 80)

Abstract

Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists worldwide. The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a very unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review we describe some of the important materials science applications of carbon nanotubes. Specifically we discuss the electronic and electrochemical applications of nanotubes, nanotubes as mechanical reinforcements in high performance composites, nanotube-based field emitters, and their use as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations, and as templates for the creation of other nanostructures. Electronic properties and device applications of nanotubes are treated elsewhere in the book. The challenges that ensue in realizing some of these applications are also discussed from the point of view of manufacturing, processing, and cost considerations.

Keywords

Carbon Nanotubes Hydrogen Storage Individual Nanotubes Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber SWNT Bundle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, S. C. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 318, 162(1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Iijima, Nature 354, 56(1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. C. Eklund, Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes(Academic, New York 1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. W. Ebbesen, Carbon Nanotubes: Preparation and Properties(CRC, Boca Raton 1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes(Imperial College Press, London 1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. I. Yakobson, R. E. Smalley, American Scientist 85, 324(1997)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. M. Ajayan, Chem. Rev. 99, 1787 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Dekker, Phys. Today, 22(May 1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. G. Louie, see chapter in this volumeGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. M. Ajayan, T. Ichihashi, S. Iijima, Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 384(1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. L. Carroll, P. Redlich, P. M. Ajayan, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, A. De Vita, R. Car, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2811 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. W. Ebbessen, P. M. Ajayan, H. Hiura, K. Tanigaki, Nature 367, 519(1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Liu, A. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. Hafner, R. Bradley, P. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. Huffman, F. Rodriguez-Macias, Y. Shon, R. Lee, D. Colbert, R. E. Smalley, Science 280, 1253 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. M. Ajayan, S. Iijima, Nature 361, 333(1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. C. Tsang, Y. K. Chen, P. J. F. Harris, M. L. H. Green, Nature 372, 159 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Dujardin, T. W. Ebbesen, T. Hiura, K. Tanigaki, Science 265, 1850 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, K. Sugihara, I. L. Spain, H. A. Goldberg, Graphite Fibers and Filaments (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1988)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. S. Dresselhaus, M. Endo, see chapter in this volumeGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. W. Ebbesen, P. M. Ajayan, Nature 358, 220(1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. Journet, W. K. Maser, P. Bernier, A. Loiseau, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, S. Lefrant, P. Deniard, R. Lee, J. E. Fischer, Nature 388, 756(1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikdaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, A. G. Rinzler, D. T. Colbert, G.E. Scuseria, D. Tomanek, J. E. Fischer, R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483(1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    W. Z. Li, S. S. Xie, L. X. Qian, B. H. Chang, B. S. Zou, W. Y. Zhou, R. A. Zhao, G. Wang, Science 274, 1701 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Terrones, N. Grobert, J. Olivares, J. P. Zhang, H. Terrones, K. Kordatos, W. K. Hsu, J. P. Hare, P. D. Townshend, K. Prassides, A. K. Cheetham, H. W. Kroto, Nature 388, 52(1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. F. Ren, Z. P. Huang, J. W. Xu, J. H. Wang, P. Bush, M. P. Siegal, P. N. Provencio, Science 282, 1105(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Kong, H. T. Soh, A. M. Cassell, C. F. Quate, H. Dai, Nature 395, 878 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Gomer, Field Emission and Field Ionization (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA 1961)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    L. Forró, C. Schönenberger, see chapter in this volumeGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    I. Brodie, C. Spindt, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 83, 1(1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. A. Castellano, Handbook of Display Technology (Academic Press, San Diego 1992)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. W. Scott, Understanding Microwaves (Wiley, New York 1993)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    W. Zhu, G. Kochanski, S. Jin, Science 282, 1471(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. Bower, O. Zhou, W. Zhu, A. G. Ramirez, G. P. Kochanski, S. Jin, in Amorphous and Nanostructured Carbon, J. P. Sullivan, J. R. Robertson, B. F. Coll, T. B. Allen, O. Zhou(Eds.)(Mater. Res. Soc.) (in press)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. G. Rinzler, J. H. Hafner, P. Nikolaev, L. Lou, S. G. Kim, D. Tomanek, D. Colbert, R. E. Smalley, Science 269, 1550 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Saito, K. Hamaguchi, T. Nishino, K. Hata, K. Tohji, A. Kasuya, Y. Nishina, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1340–1342,(1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Collins, A. Zettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1969(1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Q. H. Wang, T. D. Corrigan, J. Y. Dai, R. P. H. Chang, A. R. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3308 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    W. de Heer, A. Chatelain, D. Ugarte, Science 270, 1179 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    O. Kuttel, O. Groening, C. Emmenegger, L. Schlapbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2113 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. M. Bonnard, J. P. Salvetat, T. Stockli, W. A. de Herr, L. Forro, A. Chatelain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 918(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    W. Zhu, C. Bower, O. Zhou, G. P. Kochanski, S. Jin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 873(1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. A. Dean, B. R. Chalamala, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3832 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    K. A. Dean, B. R. Chalamala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 375(2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Robertson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(1999)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. Suzuki, C. Bower, Y. Watanabe, O. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. (in press)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Y. Saito, S. Uemura, K. Hamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L346(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Q. H. Wang, A. A. Setlur, J. M. Lauerhaas, J. Y. Dai, E. W. Seelig, R. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2912 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    W. B. Choi, D. S. Chung, J. H. Kang, H. Y. Kim, Y. W. Jin, I. T. Han, Y. H. Lee, J. E. Jung, N. S. Lee, G. S. Park, J. M. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 20(1999)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    R. Standler, Protection of Electronic Circuits from Over-voltages (Wiley, New York 1989)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    R. Rosen, W. Simendinger, C. Debbault, H. Shimoda, L. Fleming, B. Stoner, O. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1197 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. L. McCreery, Electroanal. Chem., 17, (ed. A. J. Bard) (Marcel Dekker, New York 1991)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. Nugent, K. S. V. Santhanam, A. Rubio, P. M. Ajayan, J. Phys. Chem. submittedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. J. Britto, K. S. V. Santhanam, P. M. Ajayan, Bioelectrochem. Bioenergetics 41, 121 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    P. J. Britto, K. S. V. Santhanam, A. Rubio, A. Alonso, P. M. Ajayan, Adv. Mater. 11, 154(1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    G. Che, B. B. Lakshmi, E. R. Fisher, C. R. Martin, Nature 393, 346(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. M. Planeix, N. Coustel, B. Coq, V. Brotons, P. S. Kumbhar, R. Dutartre, P. Geneste, P. Bernier, P. M. Ajayan, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 7935 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    C. Niu, E. K. Sichel, R. Hoch, D. Moy, D. H. Tennet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 1480 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. Whittingham (Ed.), Recent Advances in Rechargeeable Li Batteries, Solid State Ionics 69 (3,4)(1994)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    M. Winter, J. Besenhard, K. Spahr, P. Novak, Adv. Mater. 10, 725(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. R. Dahn, T. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. S. Xue, Science 270, 590 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    V. Avdeev, V. Nalimova, K. Semenenko, High Pressure Res. 6, 11(1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    E. Frackowiak, S. Gautier, H. Gaucher, S. Bonnamy, F. Beguin, Carbon 37, 61 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    G. T. Wu, C. S. Wang, X. B. Zhang, H. S. Yang, Z. F. Qi, P. M. He, W. Z. Li, J. Electrochem. Soc. 146(5), 1696–1701 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. Claye, R. Lee, Z. Benes, J. Fischer, J. Electrochem. Soc.(in press)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    B. Gao, A. Kelinhammes, X. P. Tang, C. Bower, Y. Wu, O. Zhou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 153(1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    O. Zhou, R. M. Fleming, D. W. Murphy, C. T. Chen, R. C. Haddon, A. P. Ramirez, S. H. Glarum, Science 263, 1744 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    S. Suzuki, M. Tomita, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3739 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. Suzuki, C. Bower, O. Zhou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 285, 230(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    B. Gao, C. Bower, O. Zhou (unpublished results)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. C. Dillon, K. M. Jones, T. A. Bekkedahl, C. H. Kiang, D. S. Bethune, M. J. Heben, Nature 386, 377(1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    P. Chen, X. Wu, J. Lin, K. Tan, Science 285, 91(1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    C. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, M. Liu, H. T. Cong, H. M. Cheng, M. S. Dresselhaus, Science 286, 1127 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    C. Nutenadel, A. Zuttel, D. Chartouni, L. Schlapbach, Solid-State Lett. 2, 30 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    A. Chambers, C. Park, R. T. K. Baker, N. M. Rodriguez, J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4253 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    M. S. Dresselhaus, K. A. Williams, P. C. Eklund, MRS Bull., 24, (11), 45 (1999)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. J. Heben, Kirchberg (private communication)(2000)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. Pederson, J. Broughton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2689 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Y. Ye, C. C. Ahn, C. Witham, B. Fultz, J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, D. Colbert, K. A. Smith, R. E. Smalley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2307 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    P. G. Collins, K. Bradley, M. Ishigami, A. Zettl, Science, 287, 1801–1804 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    X. P.Tang, A. Kleinhammes, H. Shimoda, L. Fleming, K. Y. Bennoune, C. Bower, O. Zhou, Y. Wu, Science, 288, 492–494(2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. N. Coleman, A. B. Dalton, S. Curran, A. Rubio, A. P. Davey, A. Drury, B. McCarthy, B. Lahr, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, R. C. Barklie, W. Blau, Adv. Mater. 12, 213(2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    G. Overney, W. Zhong, D. Tomanek, Z. Phys. D 27, 93(1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    B. I. Yakobson, C. J. Brabec, J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2511 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    M. M. J. Treacy, T. W. Ebbesen, J. M. Gibson, Nature 381, 678(1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    E. W. Wong, P. E. Sheehan, C. M. Lieber, Science 277, 1971 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    B. Yakobson, Ph. Avouris, see chapter in this volume. (hoped for chapter)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    M. Yu, O. Lourie, M. J. Dyer, K. Moloni, T. F. Kelly, R. S. Ruoff, Science 287, 637(2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    M. R. Falvo, C. J. Clary, R. M. Taylor, V. Chi, F. P. Brooks, S. Washburn, R. Superfine, Nature 389, 582(1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    B. I. Yakobson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 918(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    A. J. Stone, D. J. Wales, Chem. Phys. Lett. 128, 501(1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    B. I. Yakobson, C. J. Brabec, J. Bernholc, J. Computer Aided Materials Design 3, 173 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    P. M. Ajayan, O. Stephan, C. Colliex, D. Trauth, Science 265, 1212 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    H. D. Wagner, O. Lourie, Y. Feldman, R. Tenne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 188 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    L. Jin, C. Bower, O. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1197 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    L. S. Schadler, S. C. Giannaris, P. M. Ajayan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 26(1999)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    C. Bower, R. Rosen, L. Jin, J. Han, O. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3317 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    P. Calvert, Nature 399, 210(1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, A. Rubio, Adv. Mater. (in press)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    S. Chang, R. H. Doremus, P. M. Ajayan, R. W. Siegel, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    S. Curran, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, D. L. Carroll, J. Coleman, A. B. Dalton, A. P. Davey, B. McCarthy, A. Strevens, Adv. Mater. 10, 1091 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    H. Ago, K. Petritsch, M. S. P. Shaffer, A. H. Windle, R. H. Friend, Adv. Mater. 11, 1281 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    D. L. Carroll, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    M. S. P. Shaffer, A. H. Windle, Adv. Mater. 11, 937(1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    M. Endo, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    H. J. Dai, J. H. Hafner, A. G. Rinzler, D. T. Colbert, R. E. Smalley, Nature 384, 147(1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    S. S. Wong, J. D. Harper, P. T. Lansbury C. M. Lieber, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 603(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    J. H. Hafner, C. L. Cheung, C. M. Lieber, Nature 398, 761(1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    P. Kim, C. M. Lieber, Science 286, 2148 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    S. S. Wong, A. T. Woolley, T. W. Odom, J. L. Huang, P. Kim, D. Vezenov, C. Lieber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3465 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    J. Chen, M. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    S. S. Wong, E. Joselevich, A. T. Woolley, C. L. Cheung, C. M. Lieber, Nature 394(1998)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    R. H. Baughman, C. Cui, A. A. Zhakhidov, Z. Iqbal, J. N. Barisci, G. M. Spinks, G. G. Wallace, A. Mazzoldi, D. D. Rossi, A. G. Rinzler, O. Jaschinski, S. Roth, M. Kertesz, Science 284, 1340 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. Zhou, M. C. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, H. Dai, Science 287, 622(2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    M. R. Pederson, J. Q. Broughton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2689 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    P. M. Ajayan, T. W. Ebbesen, T. Ichihashi, S. Iijima, K. Tanigaki, H. Hiura, Nature 362, 522(1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    P. M. Ajayan, O. Stephan, P. Redlich, C. Colliex, Nature 375, 564(1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    R. S. Ruoff, D. C. Lorents, B. Chan, R. Malhotra, S. Subramoney, Science 259, 346(1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    C. Guerret-Plecourt, Y. Le Bouar, A. Loiseau, H. Pascard, Nature 372, 761 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Y. Zhang, K. Suenaga, C. Colliex, S. Iijima, Science 281, 973(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    J. Hu, M. Ouyang, P. Yang, C. M. Lieber, Nature 399, 48(1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Y. Zhang, T. Ichihashi, E. Landree, F. Nihey, S. Iijima, Science 285, 1719 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    F. Balavoine, P. Schultz, C. Richard, V. Mallouh, T. W. Ebbesen, C. Mioskowsk, Angew. Chem. 111, 2036 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    R. S. Lee, H. J. Kim, J. E. Fischer, A. Thess, R. E. Smalley, Nature 388, 255 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    H. J. Dai, E. W. Wong, Y. Z. Lu, S. S. Fan, C. M. Lieber, Nature 375, 769 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    R. Tenne, A. Zettl, see chapter in this volumeGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    M. Endo, Ph.D. Thesis(1975)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    J. C. Charlier, S. Iijima, see chapter in this volumeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pulickel M. Ajayan
    • 1
  • Otto Z. Zhou
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  2. 2.Curriculum in Applied and Materials Sciences Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations