BER Formulation for the Blind Retrieval of MPEG Video Watermark

  • Sugiri Pranata
  • Yong Liang Guan
  • Hock Chuan Chua
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2613)


In this paper, we attempt to develop simple but effective formulations for the bit error rate (BER) pertaining to the blind retrieval of spread-spectrum watermarks linearly embedded in compressed video such as MPEG video. Both spatial and discrete cosine transform (DCT) watermarking schemes are considered. A set of formulas is developed to predict the watermark retrieval BER in the presence of distortions due to MPEG encod-ing/decoding operations, cropping attacks, selective DCT-domain embedding, and linear filtering on the watermarked video subject to watermark amplitude and spreading factor variation. The derived formulas are simple to use and they are proven to be successful in reliably predicting the watermark retrieval BER. With the help of such BER formulas, watermark robustness can be more easily fine-tuned without the need for time-consuming simulations.


Discrete Cosine Transform Watermark Scheme Spreading Factor Digital Watermark Discrete Cosine Transform Coefficient 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sugiri Pranata
    • 1
  • Yong Liang Guan
    • 1
  • Hock Chuan Chua
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EEENanyang Technological UniversitySingapore

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