Analysis of a Digit Concatenation Approach to Constant Creation

  • Michael O’Neill
  • Ian Dempsey
  • Anthony Brabazon
  • Conor Ryan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2610)


This study examines the utility of employing digit concatenation, as distinct from the traditional expression based approach, for the purpose of evolving constants in Grammatical Evolution. Digit concatenation involves creating constants (either whole or real numbers) by concatenating digits to form a single value. The two methods are compared using three different problems, which are finding a static real constant, finding dynamic real constants, and a quadratic map, which on iteration generates a chaotic time-series. The results indicate that the digit concatenation approach results in a significant improvement in the best fitness obtained across all problems analysed here.


Genetic Program Digit Concatenation Grammatical Evolution Cache Algorithm Traditional Expression 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael O’Neill
    • 1
  • Ian Dempsey
    • 1
  • Anthony Brabazon
    • 2
  • Conor Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. Of Computer Science & Information SystemsUniversity of LimerickIreland
  2. 2.Dept. Of AccountancyUniversity College DublinIreland

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