Specifying Electronic Societies with the Causal Calculator

  • Alexander Artikis
  • Marek Sergot
  • Jeremy Pitt
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2585)

Abstract

In previous work [1] we presented a framework for the speci- fication of open computational societies i.e. societies where the behaviour of the members and their interactions cannot be predicted in advance. We viewed computational systems from an external perspective, with a focus on the institutional and the social aspects of these systems. The social constraints and roles of the open societies were specified with the use of the Event Calculus. In this paper, we formalise our framework with the use of the C+ language, a formalism with explicit state transition semantics. We use the implementation of the C+ language, the Causal Calculator, a software tool for representing commonsense knowledge about action and change, to animate and validate the speci fications of computational societies. We demonstrate the utility of the Causal Calculator (by specifying and executing a Contract-Net Protocol) and comment on its functionality regarding the specification of computational societies.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Artikis, A., Pitt, J., Sergot, M.: Animated specifications of computational societies. In Castelfranchi, C., Johnson, L., eds.: Proceedings of Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS). (2002) 1053–1062Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bartolini, C., Priest, C., Jennings, N.: Architecting for reuse: A software framework for automated negotiation. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE). (2002) 87–98Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosenschein, J., Zlotkin, G.: Rules of Encounter: Designing Conventions for Automated Negotiation among Computers. The MIT Press (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hardwick, M., Bolton, R.: The industrial virtual enterprise. Communications of the ACM 40 (1997) 59–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hewitt, C.: Open information systems semantics for distributed artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence 47 (1991) 76–106CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singh, M.: A social semantics for agent communication languages. In: Issues in Agent Communication. LNCS 1916. Springer (2000) 31–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shanahan, M.: The event calculus explained. Artificial Intelligence Today (1999) 409–430Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Giunchiglia, E., Lee, J., Lifschitz, V., McCain, N., Turner, H.: Nonmonotonic causal theories. (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smith, R., Davis, R.: Distributed problem solving: The contract-net approach. In: Proceedings of Conference of Canadian Society for Computational Studies of Intelligence. (1978) 217–236Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee, J., Lifschitz, V., Turner, H.: A representation of the zoo world in the language of the causal calculator. In: Proceedings of Fifth Symposium on Formalizations of Commonsense Knowledge. (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jones, A., Sergot, M.: A formal characterisation of institutionalised power. Journal of the IGPL 4 (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sergot, M.: A computational theory of normative positions. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 2 (2001) 522–581CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fagin, R., Halpern, J., Moses, Y., Vardi, M.: Reasoning About Knowledge. The MIT Press (1995)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pitt, J., Kamara, L., Artikis, A.: Interaction patterns and observable commitments in a multi-agent trading scenario. In: Proceedings of Conference on Autonomous Agents (AA), ACM Press (2001) 481–489Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sergot, M.: The language (C/C+)++. ALFEBIITE Deliverable D6(2) (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Esteva, M., Rodriguez-Aguilar, J., Sierra, C., Garcia, P., Arcos, J.: On the formal specifications of electronic institutions. In Dignum, F., Sierra, C., eds.: Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce. LNAI 1991. Springer (2001) 126–147Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yolum, P., Singh, M.: Flexible protocol specification and execution: Applying event calculus planning using commitments. In Castelfranchi, C., Johnson, L., eds.: Proceedings of Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS). (2002) 527–535Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Singh, M.: An ontology for commitments in multiagent systems: Towards a unification of normative concepts. Artificial Intelligence and Law 7 (1999) 97–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    van der Meyden, R.: The dynamic logic of permission. Journal of Logic and Computation 6 (1996) 465–479MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Artikis
    • 1
  • Marek Sergot
    • 2
  • Jeremy Pitt
    • 1
  1. 1.Electrical Engineering DepartmentImperial College of Science, Technology and MedicineLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of ComputingImperial College of Science, Technology and MedicineLondonUK

Personalised recommendations