Advertisement

The Energy Release Process in Solar Flares; Constraints from TRACE Observations

  • Lyndsay Fletcher
  • Harry P. Warren
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 612)

Abstract

The Transition Region And Coronal Explorer Satellite, TRACE, launched in 1998, has proved a valuable tool in the study of solar flares. UV and EUV observations of the impulsive and gradual phases of many tens of flares have been made. TRACE’s excellent spatial resolution and image cadence on the order of one second allow the rearrangement of the magnetic field to be tracked in some detail. The combination of these observations with data from other instruments, and with magnetic field reconstructions, have provided strong evidence for (a) UV emission as a beam proxy in the impulsive phase (b) long duration coronal heating in the gradual phase (c) very complex and varied magnetic geometries. We review the observational evidence for the above, discussing implications for energy release.

Keywords

Solar Physic Impulsive Phase Trace Observation Flare Energy Release Trace Constraint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. Alexander & T. R. Metcalf: Astrophys. J 489, 442 (1997).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. K. Antiochos, C. R. Devore & J. A. Klimchuk: Astrophys. J. 510, 485 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. J. Aschwanden, L. Fletcher, C. J. Schrijver & D. Alexander: Astrophys. J. 520, 880 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. J. Aschwanden: Solar Physics 190, 249 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. J. Aschwanden & P. Charbonneau: Astrophys. J. 566, L59 (2002).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Aulanier, E. E. DeLuca, S. K. Antiochos, R. A. McMullen & L. Golub: Astrophys. J. 540, 1126 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Brekke, G. J. Rottman, J. Fontenla, P. G. Judge: Astrophys. J. 468, 418 (1996).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. C. Brown & D. B. Melrose: Solar Physics 52, 117 (1977).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. C. Canfield, D. M. Zarro, J.-P. Wülser & B. R. Dennis: Astrophys. J. 367, 671 (1991).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. J. Cargill, J. T. Mariska & S. K. Antiochos, Astrophys. J. 439 (1995).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.-C. Cheng, E. Tandberg-Hanssen, E. C. Bruner, et al: Astrophys. J. 248, L39 (1981).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.-C. Cheng, E. Tandberg-Hanssen, & L. E. Orwig: Astrophys. J. 278, 853 (1984).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. A. Doschek: Astrophys. J. 527, 426 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. G. Emslie, J. C. Brown & R. F. Donnelly: Solar Physics 57, 175 (1978).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Fárník & S. K. Savy: Solar Physics 183, 339 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    U. Feldman, J. M. Laming, G. A. Doschek, H. P. Warren & L. Golub.: Astrophys. J. 511, L61 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Fletcher, T. R. Metcalf, D. Alexander, D. S. Brown & L. A. Ryder: Astrophys. J 554, 541 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Fletcher & H. S. Hudson, Solar Physics 204, 71 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. T. Gallagher, D. R. Williams, K. J. H. Phillips et al: Solar. Phys 195, 367 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. N. Handy, L. W. Acton, C. C. Kankelborg, C. J. Wolfson, D. J. Akin et al.: Solar Physics 184, 229 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Hawley, G. H. Fisher: Astrophys. J. Supps. 78, 565 (1992).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. S. Hudson: Solar Physics 133, 357 (1991).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. W. Kahler, R. L. Moore, S. R. Kane & H. Zirin: Astrophys. J. 328, 842 (1988).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. R. Kane & R. F. Donnelly: Astrophys. J 164, 151 (1971).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. R. Kane, K. J. Frost & R. F. Donnelly: Astrophys. J. 234, 699 (1979).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Kliem, A. MacKinnon, G. Trottet & T. Bastian: this volume Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Klimchuk in: Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Atmosphere ed. by R. D. Bentley and J. Mariska, ASP Conf. Proceedings 111, 319 (1997).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Krucker & A. O. Benz: Solar Physics. 191, 341 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y.-T. Lau & J. M. Finn: Astrophys. J. 350, 672 (1990).CrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Masuda, T. Kosugi & H. S. Hudson: Solar Physics 204, 55 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. N. McClymont & R. C. Canfield: Astrophys. J. 305, 936 (1986).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. M. McTiernan, G. H. Fisher & P. Li: Astrophys. J, 514, 472 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    N. V. Nitta, J. Sato, & H. S. Hudson: Astrophys. J. 552, 821 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. H. J. van den Oord: Astron. Astrophys. 234, 496 (1990).ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. E. Orwig & B. E. Woodgate, in “Rapid Fluctuations in Solar Flares” (SEE N87-21785 14-92), p277, 1986.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    E. N. Parker: Astrophys. J. 300, 474 (1988).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C. E. Parnell & P. E. Jupp: Astrophys. J. 529 554, (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. I. Poland, L. E. Orwig, J. T. Mariska, L. H. Auer, & R. Nakatsuka: Astrophys. J. 280, 457 (1984).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    E. R. Priest & V. S. Titov: Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, A 354 2951 (1996).zbMATHCrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Qiu, M. D. Ding, H. Wang et al.: Astrophys. J., 554, 445 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. K. Reeves & H. P. Warren: in ‘Multi-Wavelength Observations of Coronal Structure and Dynamics—Yohkoh 10th Anniversary Meeting’, ed. by P. C. H. Martens and D. Cauffman, Elsevier, 2002 (in preparation).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. L. R. Saba, T. Gaeng & T. D. Tarbell: in ‘Multi-Wavelength Observations of Coronal Structure and Dynamics-Yohkoh 10th Anniversary Meeting’, ed. by P. C. H. Martens and D. Cauffman, Elsevier, 2002 (in preparation).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. Sakao, T. Kosugi & S. Masuda: in ‘Observational Plasma Astrophysics: Five Years of Yohkoh and Beyond’, ed. by T. Watanabe, T. Kosuga & A. C. Sterling, (Kluwer Acedemic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1998) p. 273Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    C. J. Schrijver, A. M. Title, T. E. Berger, L. Fletcher, N. E. Hurlburt et al.: Solar Physics 187, 261 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. Shimizu & S. Tsuneta: Astrophys. J 486. 1045 (1997).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Siarkowski, J. Sylwester, J. Jakimiec & M. Tomczak: Acta Astronomica 46, 15 (1996).ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. J. Tappin: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 87, 277 (1991).ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    S. Tsuneta, S. Masuda, T. Kosugi & J. Sato: Astrophys. J. 478, 787 (1997).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. Wang, J. Chae, J. Qiu, C. K. Lee, & P. R. Goode: Solar Physics 188, 365 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. P. Warren, J. A. Bookbinder, T. G. Forbes, L. Golub, H. S. Hudson, et al.: Astrophys. J. 527, L121 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    H. P. Warren: Astrophys. J, 536, L105 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. P. Warren & K. K. Reeves, Astrophys. J. 554, L103 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. P. Warren & A. D. Warshall: Astrophys. J 560, L87 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    B. E. Woodgate, R. A. Shine, A. I. Poland & L. E. Orwig: Astrophys. J. 265, 530 (1983).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lyndsay Fletcher
    • 1
  • Harry P. Warren
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations