Improving Estimation Practices by Applying Use Case Models

  • Bente Anda
  • Endre Angelvik
  • Kirsten Ribu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2559)


An estimation method based on use cases, the use case points method, has given promising results. However, more knowledge is needed about the contexts in which the method can be applied and how it should be adapted to local environments to improve the estimation process. We applied the use case points method to several projects in a Scandinavian software development company as the first activity in a software process improvement project on improving estimation. The second activity of the improvement project was to conduct interviews with project managers and senior developers about how to obtain continued and more widespread use of the method in the company. Based on the interviews, we propose a tailored, potentially improved version of the method and suggest how estimation practices can be improved by applying it. We believe that these experiences may be of interest to other companies that consider applying use case models as part of their estimation practices.


Software Development Case Model Business Logic Case Point Software Development Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Albrecht, A.J. Measuring Application Development Productivity. Proceedings of joint SHARE, GUIDE and IBM Application Development Symposium. 1979.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Anda, B. Comparing Use Case based Estimates with Expert Estimates. Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Empirical Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE 2002), Keele, United Kingdom, April 8–10, 2002.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Anda, B., Dreiem, H., Sjøberg, D.I.K., and Jørgensen, M. Estimating Software Development Effort Based on Use Cases-Experiences from Industry. UML’2001–4th Int. Conference on the Unified Modeling Language, Concepts, and Tools, Toronto, Canada, October 1–5, 2001, LNCS 2185, Springer-Verlag, pp. 487–502.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Anda, B., Sjøberg, D.I.K. and Jørgensen, M. Quality and Understandability in Use Case Models. ECOOP’2001, June 18–22, 2001, LNCS 2072 Springer-Verlag, pp. 402–428.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Blattberg, R.C. and Hoch, S.J. Database models and managerial intuition: 50% model + 50% manager, Management Science, Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 887–899. 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Fetcke, T., Abran, A. amp; Nguyen, T-H. Mapping the OO-Jacobson Approach into Function Point Analysis. Technology of Object-Oriented Languages and Systems, TOOLS-23. IEEE Comput. Soc, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, pp. 192–202. 1998.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Jørgensen, M. An empirical evaluation of the MK II FPA estimation model, Norwegian Informatics Conference, Voss, Norway. 1997.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Jørgensen, M. Reviews of Studies on Expert Estimation of Software Development Effort. Submitted to Journal of Systems and Software.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Karner, G. Metrics for Objectory. Diploma thesis, University of Linköping, Sweden. No. LiTH-IDA-Ex-9344:21. December 1993.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Kitchenham, B. A. Software Metrics: Measurement for Software Process Improvement. Blackwell Publishers. 1996.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Marchesi, M. OOA Metrics for the Unified Modeling Language. In Proc. of the Second Euromicro Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering, IEEE Comput. Soc, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, pp. 67–73. 1998.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Ribu, K. Estimating Object-Oriented Software Projects with Use Cases. Masters’ Thesis, University of Oslo. November 2001.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Schneider, G. amp; Winters, J. Applying Use Cases-A Practical Guide. Addison-Wesley. 1998.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Smith, J. The Estimation of Effort Based on Use Cases. Rational Software, White paper. 1999.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Symons C.R. Software Sizing and Estimating, MKII FPA. John Wiley and Sons, 1991.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Symons, C. Come back function point analysis (modernized)-all is forgiven! Software Measurement Services Ltd. 2001.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bente Anda
    • 1
  • Endre Angelvik
    • 2
  • Kirsten Ribu
    • 1
  1. 1.Simula Research LaboratoryLysakerNorway
  2. 2.Mogul NorwayOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations