The formation of plant crowns depends on the initiation of buds and the variable growth of twigs (Roloff 2001). Some twigs grow fast and turn into long shoots; others grow slowly and become short shoots (7.1-7.5). Genetic and ecological factors determine the growth of twigs. The genetic influence is very obvious in some conifers, such as larch (7.7-7.10). Annual longitudinal growth may be determined by bud-scale scars. Annual radial xylem growth is indicated by the ring width (7.6).
KeywordsAdventitious Shoot Compression Wood Tension Wood Latent Shoot Short Shoot
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