Massive Multi-Agent Simulation in 3D

  • Masaru Aoyagi
  • Akira Namatame
Part of the Advances in Soft Computing book series (AINSC, volume 29)


In this paper, we discuss our challenge on how to give the creatures and ability to follow spatial restriction while keeping the complexity low enough to still allow for real-time simulation of the herd. Our methodologies extend the pioneering work by Reynolds’ flocking algorithm. We extend how the herd can move in natural-looking paths. Also, we show like the creatures to travel smoothly in 3D space with speed regulation in curve.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Reynolds, C. W. (1987) “Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model, in Computer Graphics,” 21(4) (SIGGRAPH’ 87 Conference Proceedings), pp.25/34.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Reynolds, C. W. (1999) “Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters,” in the proceedings of Game Developers Conference 1999 held in San Jose, California. Miller Freeman Game Group, San Francisco, California. pp.763/782.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Hertz J., Krogh A., Palmer, R. G. (1991) “Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation,” Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    S. L. Veherencamp (1987) “Individual, kin, and group selection,” in Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology, Volume 3: Social Behavior and Communication, P. Marler and J. G. Vandenbergh, Eds. New York: Plenum, pp. 354/382.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. M. Cullen, E. Shaw, and H. A. Baldwin (1965) “Methods for measuring the three-dimensional structure of fish schools,” Animal Beh., vol.13, pp.534/543Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    X. Tu and D. Terzopoulos (July 1994) “Artificial fishes: Physics, locomotion, perception, behavior,” in Proc. SIGGRAPH 94 Conf., Orlando, FL, pp.43/50Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    D. C. Brogan and J. K. Hodgins (Mar. 1997) “Group behaviors for systems with significant dynamics,” Auton. Robots, vol. 4, no. 1, pp.137/153Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    P. K. C. Wang (1991) “Navigation strategies for multiple autonomous robots moving in formation,” J. Robot. Syst., vol. 8, no. 2, pp.177/195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Q. Chen and J. Y. S. Luh (1994) “Coordination and control of a group of small mobile robots,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., San Diego, CA, 1994, pp. 2315/2320Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    M. Mataric (1992) “Designing emergent behaviors: From local interactions to collective intelligence,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: From Animals to Animats 2, pp.432/441Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    (May 1992) “Minimizing complexity in controlling a mobile robot population,” in Proc. 1992 IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., Nice, France, pp. 830/835Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    L. E. Parker (1994) “Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., Mass. Inst. of Technol., Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    E. Yoshida, T. Arai, J. Ota, and T. Miki (1994) “Effect of grouping in local communication system of multiple mobile robots,” in Proc. 1994 IEEE Int. Conf. Intell. Robots Syst., Munich, Germany, pp. 808/815Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    H. Yamaguchi (Apr. 1997) “Adaptive formation control for distributed autonomous mobile robot groups,” in Proc. 1997 IEEE Conf. Robot. Automat., Albuquerque, NMGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    D. W. Gage (1992) “Command control for many-robot systems,” Unmanned Syst. Mag., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 28/34Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    L. Parker (1993) “Designing control laws for cooperative agent teams,” in Proc. 1993 IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat., pp. 582/587Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    R. Brooks (Feb. 1986) “A robust layered control system for a mobile robot,” IEEE J. Robot. Automat., vol. RA-2, p. 14MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Tucker Balch and Ronald C. Arkin (Dec 1998) “Behavior-Based Formation Control for Multirobot Teams,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol.14, no.6Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Wolpert and Tumer (2004) “Collectives and the Design of Complex Systems,” Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaru Aoyagi
    • 1
  • Akira Namatame
    • 1
  1. 1.National Defense AcademyJapan

Personalised recommendations