Phylloplane Yeasts

  • Á. Fonseca
  • J. Inácio
Part of the The Yeast Handbook book series (YEASTHDB)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews JH (1991) Future research directions in phyllosphere ecology. In: Andrews JH, Hirano SS (eds) Microbial ecology of leaves. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 467–479Google Scholar
  2. Andrews JH (1992) Biological control in the phyllosphere. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30:603–635CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews JH, Buck JW (2002) Adhesion of yeasts to leaf surfaces. In: Lindow SE, Hecht-Poinar EI, Elliott VJ (eds) Phyllosphere microbiology. APS, St Paul, MN, pp 53–65Google Scholar
  4. Andrews JH, Harris RF (2000) The ecology and biogeography of microorganisms on plant surfaces. Annu Rev Phytopathol 38:145–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews JH, Kenerley CM (1978) The effects of a pesticide program on non-target epiphytic microbial populations of apple leaves. Can J Microbiol 24:1058–1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrews JH, Kenerley CM (1980) Microbial populations associated with buds and young leaves of apple. Can J Bot 58:847–855Google Scholar
  7. Andrews JH, Kenerley CM, Nordheim EV (1980) Positional variation in phylloplane populations within an apple tree canopy. Microb Ecol 6:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andrews JH, Kinkel LL, Berbee FM, Nordheim EV (1987) Fungi, leaves, and the theory of island biogeography. Microb Ecol 14:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andrews JH, Harris RF, Spear RN, Lau GW, Nordheim EV (1994) Morphogenesis and adhesion of Aureobasidium pullulans. Can J Microbiol 40:6–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Andrews JH, Spear RN, Nordheim EV (2002) Population biology of Aureobasidium pullulans on apple leaf surfaces. Can J Microbiol 48:500–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Avis TJ, Bélanger RR (2002) Mechanisms and means of detection of biocontrol activity of Pseudozyma yeasts against plant-pathogenic fungi. FEMS Yeast Res 2:5–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Azeredo LAI, Gomes EAT, Mendonça-Hagler LC, Hagler AN (1998) Yeast communities associated with sugarcane in Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Int Microbiol 1:205–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Babjeva IP, Chernov IY (1995) Geographic aspects of yeast ecology. Physiol Gen Biol Rev 9(3):1–54Google Scholar
  14. Babjeva IP, Reshetova I (1998) Yeast resources in natural habitats at polar circle latitude. Food Technol Biotechnol 36:1–5Google Scholar
  15. Babjeva IP, Sadykov BF (1980) Composition and number of yeasts in plant phyllosphere (in Russian). Mikol Phytopatol 14:473–476Google Scholar
  16. Babjeva IP, Kartintseva AA, Maksimova IA, Chernov IY (1999) Yeasts in the spruce forests of the Central Forest Reserve (in Russian). Vestn Mosk Univ Ser Pochvoved 4:45–49Google Scholar
  17. Bai FY, Zhao JH, Takashima M, Jia JH, Boekhout T, Nakase T (2002) Reclassification of the Sporobolomyces roseus and the Sporidiobolus pararoseus complexes, with the description of Sporobolomyces phaffii sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:2309–2314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Baker EA (1971) Chemical and physical characteristics of cuticular membranes. In: Preece TF, Dickinson CH (eds) Ecology of leaf surface micro-organisms. Academic, London, pp 55–65Google Scholar
  19. Bakker GR, Frampton CM, Jaspers MV, Stewart A, Walter M (2002) Assessment of phylloplane micro-organism populations in Canterbury apple orchards. NZ Plant Prot 55:129–134Google Scholar
  20. Bashi E, Fokkema NJ (1976) Scanning electron microscopy of Sporobolomyces roseus on wheat leaves. Trans Br Mycol Soc 67:500–505Google Scholar
  21. Bashi E, Fokkema NJ (1977) Environmental factors limiting growth of Sporobolomyces roseus, an antagonist of Cochliobolus sativus, on wheat leaves. Trans Br Mycol Soc 68:17–25Google Scholar
  22. Beech FW, Davenport RR (1970) The role of yeasts in cider-making. In: Rose AH, Harrison JS (eds) The yeasts, vol 3. Academic, New York, pp 73–141Google Scholar
  23. Beech FW, Davenport RR (1971) A survey of methods for the quantitative examination of the yeast flora of apple and grape leaves. In: Preece TF, Dickinson CH (eds) Ecology of leaf surface micro-organisms. Academic, London, pp 139–157Google Scholar
  24. Bizeau C, Ponchant D, Moreau M (1989) Evolution of yeast flora on cider apples in Brittany. Yeast 5:S491–S494Google Scholar
  25. Blakeman JP (1971) The chemical environment of the leaf surface in relation to growth of pathogenic fungi. In: Preece TF, Dickinson CH (eds) Ecology of leaf surface micro-organisms. Academic, London, pp 255–268Google Scholar
  26. Bramwell PA, Barallon RV, Rogers HJ, Bailey MJ (1995) Extraction of microbial DNA from the phylloplane. In: Akkermans ADL, van Elsas JD, de Bruijin FJ (eds) Molecular microbial ecology manual. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  27. Breeze EM, Dix NJ (1981) Seasonal analysis of the fungal community on Acer platanoides leaves. Trans Br Mycol Soc 77:321–328Google Scholar
  28. Buck JW, Andrews JH (1999a) Localized, positive charge mediates adhesion of Rhodosporidium toruloides to barley leaves and polystyrene. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:2179–2183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Buck JW, Andrews JH (1999b) Role of adhesion in the colonization of barley leaves by the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides. Can J Microbiol 45:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Buck JW, Burpee LL (2002) The effects of fungicides on the phylloplane yeast populations of creeping bentgrass. Can J Microbiol 48:522–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Buck JW, Lachance MA, Traquair JA (1998) Mycoflora of peach bark: population dynamics and composition. Can J Bot 76:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Carmo-Sousa L (1969) Distribution of yeasts in nature. In: Rose AH, Harrison JS (eds) The yeasts, vol 1. Academic, New York, pp 79–105Google Scholar
  33. Chand-Goyal T, Spotts RA (1996) Enumeration of bacterial and yeast colonists of apple fruits and identification of epiphytic yeasts on pear fruits in the Pacific Northwest United States. Microbiol Res 151:427–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chernov IY (1985) Synecology analysis of yeast groups of Taimyr Tundra (in Russian). Ekologiya 1:54–60Google Scholar
  35. Chernov IY, Babjeva IP, Reshetova IS (1997) Synecology of yeast fungi in subtropical deserts (in Russian). Usp Sovrem Biol 117:584–602Google Scholar
  36. De Jager ES, Wehner FC, Korsten L (2001) Microbial ecology of the mango phylloplane. Microb Ecol 42:201–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Di Menna ME (1959) Yeasts from the leaves of pasture plants. NZ J Agric Res 2:394–405Google Scholar
  38. Di Menna ME (1971) The mycoflora of leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand. In: Preece TF, Dickinson CH (eds) Ecology of leaf surface microorganisms. Academic, London, pp 159–174Google Scholar
  39. Diem HG (1973) Phylloplan et phyllosphère. Can J Bot 51:1079–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Diem HG (1974) Micro-organisms of the leaf surface: estimation of the mycoflora of the barley phyllosphere. J Gen Microbiol 80:77–83Google Scholar
  41. Dik AJ, Fokkema NJ, van Pelt JA (1991) Consumption of aphid honeydew, a wheat yield reduction factor, by phyllosphere yeasts under field conditions. Nether J Plant Pathol 97:209–232Google Scholar
  42. Drahos DJ (1991) Methods for the detection, identification, and enumeration of microbes. In: Andrews JH, Hirano SS (eds) Microbial ecology of leaves. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 135–157Google Scholar
  43. Fell JW, Boekhout T, Fonseca A, Scorzetti G, Statzell-Tallman A (2000) Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:1351–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fell JW, Boekhout T, Fonseca A, Sampaio JP (2001) Basidiomycetous yeasts. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds) The mycota, vol VII, part B: systematics and evolution. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  45. Fell JW, Scorzetti G, Statzell-Tallman A, Pinel N, Yarrow D (2002) Recognition of the basidiomycetous yeast Sporobolomyces ruberrimus sp. nov. as a distinct species based on molecular and morphological analyses. FEMS Yeast Res 1:265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Flannigan B, Campbell I (1977) Preharvest mould and yeast floras on the flag leaf, bracts and caryopsis of wheat. Trans Br Mycol Soc 69:485–494Google Scholar
  47. Fokkema NJ (1991) The phyllosphere as an ecologicaly neglected milieu: a plant pathologist’s point of view. In: Andrews JH, Hirano SS (eds) Microbial ecology of leaves. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  48. Fokkema NJ, Schippers B (1986) Phyllosphere versus rhizosphere as environments for saprophytic colonization. In: Fokkema NJ, van den Heuvel J (eds) Microbiology of the phyllosphere. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 137–159Google Scholar
  49. Fokkema NJ, den Houter JG, Kosterman YJC, Nelis AL (1979) Manipulation of yeasts on field-grown wheat leaves and their antagonistic effect on Cochliobolus sativus and Septoria nodorum. Trans Br Mycol Soc 72:19–29Google Scholar
  50. Fokkema NJ, Riphagen I, Poot RJ, de Jong C (1983) Aphid honeydew, a potential stimulant of Cochliobolus sativus and Septoria nodorum and the competitive role of saprophytic mycoflora. Trans Br Mycol Soc 81:355–363Google Scholar
  51. Fonseca A, Scorzetti G, Fell JW (2000) Diversity in the yeast Cryptococcus albidus and related species as revealed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Can J Microbiol 46:7–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Glushakova AM, Chernov IY (2004) Seasonal dynamics in a yeast population on leaves of the common wood sorrel Oxalis acetosella L. Mikrobiologiya 73:226–232 (English translation: Microbiology 73:184–188)Google Scholar
  53. Golonka AM (2002) Nectar-inhabiting microorganisms and the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia. PhD thesis, Duke University, USAGoogle Scholar
  54. Golubev WI (1991) Capsules. In: Rose AH, Harrison JS (eds) The yeasts, 2nd edn, vol 4. Academic, London, pp 175–197Google Scholar
  55. Gunasekera TS, Paul ND, Ayres PG (1997) Responses of phylloplane yeasts to UV-B (290–320 nm) radiation: interspecific differences in sensitivity. Mycol Res 101:779–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hallam ND, Juniper BE (1971) The anatomy of the leaf surface. In: Preece TF, Dickinson CH (eds) Ecology of leaf surface micro-organisms. Academic, London, pp 14–37Google Scholar
  57. Herzberg MB (2004) Ecology of yeasts in plant-bumblebee mutualism in Central Europe. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 50:87–100Google Scholar
  58. Hirano SS, Upper CD (2000) Bacteria in the leaf ecosystem with emphasis on Pseudomonas syringae — a pathogen, ice nucleus, and epiphyte. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:624–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hislop EC, Cox TW (1969) Effects of captan on the non-parasitic microflora of apple leaves. Trans Br Mycol Soc 52:223–235Google Scholar
  60. Hogg BM, Hudson HJ (1966) Micro-fungi on leaves of Fagus sylvatica I. The micro-fungal succession. Trans Br Mycol Soc 49:185–192Google Scholar
  61. Hunter K, Rose AH (1971) Yeast lipids and membranes. In: Rose AH, Harrison JS (eds) The yeasts, vol 1. Academic, London, pp 211–270Google Scholar
  62. Inácio J (2003) Yeast occurrence and diversity on the phylloplane of selected plants from the Arrábida Natural Park. PhD thesis (in Portuguese). Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  63. Inácio J, Pereira P, de Carvalho M, Fonseca A, Amaral-Collaço MT, Spencer-Martins I (2002) Estimation and diversity of phylloplane mycobiota on selected plants in a Mediterraneantype ecosystem in Portugal. Microb Ecol 44:344–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Inácio J, Rodrigues MG, Sobral P, Fonseca A (2004) Characterisation and classification of phylloplane yeasts from Portugal related to the genus Taphrina and description of five novel Lalaria species. FEMS Yeast Res 4:541–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Irvine JA, Dix NJ, Warren RC (1978) Inhibitory substances in Acer platanoides leaves: seasonal activity and effects on growth of phylloplane fungi. Trans Br Mycol Soc 70:363–371Google Scholar
  66. Jacques M-A, Morris CE (1995) A review of issues related to the quantification of bacteria from the phyllosphere. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 18:1–14Google Scholar
  67. Jacques M-A, Kinkel LL, Morris CE (1995) Population sizes, immigration, and growth of epiphytic bacteria on leaves of different ages and positions of field-grown endive (Cichorium endivia var. latifolia). Appl Environ Microbiol 61:899–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kimura Y, Nakano Y, Fujita K, Miyabe S, Imasaka S, Ishikawa Y, Sato M (1998) Isolation and characteristics of yeasts able to grow at low concentrations of nutrients. Yeast 14:233–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kinkel L (1991) Fungal community dynamics. In: Andrews JH, Hirano SS (eds) Microbial ecology of leaves. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 253–270Google Scholar
  70. Kinkel LL (1997) Microbial population dynamics on leaves. Annu Rev Phytopathol 35:327–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kinkel LL, Andrews JH, Nordheim EV (1989) Fungal immigration dynamics and community development on apple leaves. Microb Ecol 18:45–58Google Scholar
  72. Kramer CL (1987) The Taphrinales. In: Hoog GS, Smith ACM, Weijman ACM (eds) The expanding realm of yeast-like fungi. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 151–166Google Scholar
  73. Kurtzman CP, Fell JW (eds) (1998) The yeasts, a taxonomic study, 4th edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  74. Kurtzman CP, Robnett CJ (1998) Identification and phylogeny of ascomycetous yeasts from analysis of nuclear large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA partial sequences. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 73:331–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kvasnikov EI, Nagornaya SS, Shchelokova IF (1975) Yeast flora of plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere (in Russian). Mikrobiologiya 44:339–346Google Scholar
  76. Lachance MA, Metcalf BJ, Starmer WT (1982) Yeasts from exudates of Quercus, Populus, Pseudotsuga, and Ulmus: new isolations and elucidation of some factors affecting ecological specificity. Microb Ecol 8:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lachance MA, Starmer WT, Rosa CA, Bowles JM, Barker JSF, Janzen DH (2001) Biogeography of the yeasts of ephemeral flowers and their insects. FEMS Yeast Res 1:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Larran S, Mónaco C, Alippi HE (2001) Endophytic fungi in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. World J Microbiol Biotech 17:181–184Google Scholar
  79. Last FT (1955) Seasonal incidence of Sporobolomyces on cereal leaves. Trans Br Mycol Soc 38:221–239Google Scholar
  80. Last FT, Price D (1969) Yeasts associated with living plants and their environs. In: Rose AH, Harrison JS (eds) The yeasts, 1st edn, vol 1. Academic, New York, pp 183–217Google Scholar
  81. Leben C (1965) Epiphytic microorganisms in relation to plant disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 3:209–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Leveau JHJ, Lindow SE (2001) Appetite of an epiphyte: quantitative monitoring of bacterial sugar consumption in the phyllosphere. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:3446–3453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Li S, Spear RN, Andrews JH (1997) Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of Aureobasidium pullulans on microscopic slides and leaf surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3261–3267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Libkind D, Perez P, Sommaruga R, Dieguez-Mdel C, Ferraro M, Brizzio S, Zagarese H, van Broock M (2004) Constitutive and UV-inducible synthesis of photoprotective compounds (carotenoids and mycosporines) by freshwater yeasts. Photochem Photobiol Sci 3:281–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lindow SE (1991) Determinants of ephiphytic fitness in bacteria. In: Andrews JH, Hirano SS (eds) Microbial ecology of leaves. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 295–314Google Scholar
  86. Lindow SE, Brandl MT (2003) Microbiology of the phyllosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1875–1883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lindow SE, Leveau JHJ (2002) Phyllosphere microbiology. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13:238–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lindsey BI, Pugh GJF (1976) Distribution of microfungi over the surfaces of attached leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides. Trans Br Mycol Soc 67:427–433Google Scholar
  89. Lund A (1954) Studies on the ecology of yeasts. Munksgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  90. Maksimova IA, Chernov IY (2004) Community structure of yeast fungi in forest biogeocenoses. Mikrobiologiya 73:558–566 (English translation: Microbiology 73:474–481)Google Scholar
  91. McBride RP, Hayes AJ (1977) Phylloplane of European larch. Trans Br Mycol Soc 69:39–46Google Scholar
  92. McCormack PJ, Bailey MJ, Jeffries P (1994a) An artificial wax substrate for the in vitro study of phylloplane microorganisms. J Microbiol Methods 19:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McCormack PJ, Wildman HG, Jeffries P (1994b) Production of antibacterial compounds by phylloplane inhabiting yeasts and yeast like fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:927–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Mercier J, Lindow SE (2000) Role of leaf surface sugars in colonization of plants by bacterial epiphytes. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Middelhoven WJ (1997) Identity and biodegradative abilities of yeast isolated from plants growing in an arid climate. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 72:81–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mishra RR, Dickinson CH (1981) Phylloplane and litter fungi of Ilex aquifolium. Trans Br Mycol Soc 77:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Moody SA, Newsham KK, Ayres PG, Paul ND (1999) Variation in the responses of litter and phylloplane fungi to UV-B radiation (290–315 nm). Mycol Res 103:1469–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Morris CE (2001) Phyllosphere. In: Encyclopedia of life sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London. DOI 10.1038/npg.els.0000400Google Scholar
  99. Morris CE, Monier J-M, Jacques M-A (1997) Methods for observing microbial biofilms directly on leaf surfaces and recovering them for isolation of culturable microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1570–1576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Moter A, Göbel UB (2000) Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for direct visualization of microorganisms. J Microbiol Methods 41:85–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nakase T (2000) Expanding world of ballistosporous yeasts: distribution in the phyllosphere, systematics and phylogeny. J Gen Appl Microbiol 46:189–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nakase T, Takashima M (1993) A simple procedure for the high frequency isolation of new taxa of ballistosporous yeasts living on the surfaces of plants. RIKEN Rev 3:33–34Google Scholar
  103. Osono T (2002) Phyllosphere fungi on leaf litter of Fagus crenata: occurrence, colonization, and succession. Can J Bot 80:460–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pennycook SR, Newhook FJ (1981) Seasonal changes in the apple phylloplane microflora. NZ J Bot 19:273–283Google Scholar
  105. Phaff HJ, Starmer WT (1987) Yeasts associated with plants, insects and soil. In: Rose AH, Harrison JS (eds) The yeasts, biology of yeasts, 2nd edn, vol 1. Academic, London, pp 123–180Google Scholar
  106. Phaff HJ, Miller MW, Mrak EM (1978) The life of yeasts, 2nd edn. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  107. Pirttilä AM, Pospiech H, Laukkanen H, Myllylä R, Hohtola A (2003) Two endophytic fungi in different tissues of scots pine buds (Pinus sylvestris L.). Microb Ecol 45:53–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Prakitchaiwattana CJ, Fleet GH, Heard GM (2004) Application and evaluation of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to analyse the yeast ecology of wine grapes. FEMS Yeast Res 4:865–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Preece TF, Dickinson CH (eds) (1971) Ecology of leaf surface micro-organisms. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Pugh GJF, Buckley (1971) The leaf surface as a substrate for colonization by fungi. In: Preece TF, Dickinson CH (eds) Ecology of leaf surface micro-organisms. Academic, London, pp 431–445Google Scholar
  111. Pugh GJF, Mulder JL (1971) Mycoflora associated with Typha latifolia. Trans Br Mycol Soc 57:273–282Google Scholar
  112. Robbs PG, Hagler AN, Mendonça-Hagler LC (1989) Yeasts associated with a pineapple plantation in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Yeast 5:S485–S489Google Scholar
  113. Ruinen J (1956) Occurrence of Beijerinckia species in the phyllosphere. Nature 177:220–221Google Scholar
  114. Ruinen J (1961) The phyllosphere I: an ecologically neglected milieu. Plant Soil 15:81–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ruinen J (1963) The phyllosphere II: yeasts from the phyllosphere of tropical foliage. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 29:425–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ruinen J (1966) The phyllosphere IV: cuticle decomposition by microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Ann Inst Pasteur 111:342–346Google Scholar
  117. Sampaio JP (2004) Diversity, phylogeny and classification of basidiomycetous yeasts. In: Agerer R, Blanz P, Piepenbring M (eds) Frontiers in basidiomycete mycology. IHW-Verlag, Eching, Germany, pp 49–80Google Scholar
  118. Scorzetti G, Fell JW, Fonseca A, Statzell-Tallman A (2002) Systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts: a comparison of large subunit D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions. FEMS Yeast Res 2:495–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Southwell RJ, Brown JF, Welsby SM (1999) Microbial interactions on the phylloplane of wheat and barley after application of mancozeb and triadimefon. Austr Plant Pathol 28:139–148Google Scholar
  120. Spear RN, Li S, Nordheim EV, Andrews JH (1999) Quantitative imaging and statistical analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of Aureobasidium pullulans. J Microbiol Meth 35:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stadler B, Müller T (1996) Aphid honeydew and its effect on the phyllosphere microflora of Picea abies (L.) Karst. Oecologia 108:771–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Starmer WT, Fogleman JC, Lachance MA (1991) The yeast community of cacti. In: Andrews JH, Hirano SS (eds) Microbial ecology of leaves. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 158–178Google Scholar
  123. Starmer WT, Schmedicke RA, Lachance MA (2003) The origin of the cactus-yeast community. FEMS Yeast Res 3:441–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. St Leger RJ, Joshi L, Roberts DW (1997) Adaptation of proteases and carbohydrases of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and entomopathogenic fungi to the requirements of their ecological niches. Microbiology 143:1983–1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sugita T, Takashima M, Ikeda R, Nakase T, Shinoda T (2000) Intraspecies diversity of Cryptococcus laurentii as revealed by sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions and 28S rRNA gene and taxonomic position of C. laurentii clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol 38:1468–1471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sugita T, Takashima M, Ikeda R, Nakase T, Shinoda T (2001) Intraspecies diversity of Cryptococcus albidus isolated from humans as revealed by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions. Microbiol Immunol 45:291–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Takashima M, Sugita T, Shinoda T, Nakase T (2003) Three new combinations from the Cryptococcus laurentii complex: Cryptococcus aureus, Cryptococcus carnescens and Cryptococcus peneaus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1187–1194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tavares S, Inácio J, Fonseca A, Oliveira C (2004) Direct detection of Taphrina deformans on peach trees using molecular methods. Eur J Plant Path 110:973–982Google Scholar
  129. Thompson IP, Bailey MJ, Ellis RJ, Lilley AK, McCormack PJ, Purdy KJ, Rainey PB (1995) Short-term community dynamics in the phyllosphere microbiology of field-grown sugar beet. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 16:205–212Google Scholar
  130. Tukey HB Jr (1971) Leaching of substances from plants. In: Preece TH, Dickinson CH (eds) Ecology of leaf surface micro-organisms. Academic, London, pp 6780Google Scholar
  131. Vishniac HS (1982) An enation system for the isolation of Antarctic yeasts inhibited by conventional media. Can J Microbiol 29:90–95Google Scholar
  132. Vinovarova ME, Babjeva IP (1987) Yeast fungi in steppe communities (in Russian). Vestn Mosk Univ Ser Pochvoved 2:43–48Google Scholar
  133. Windels CE, Lindow SE (eds) (1985) Biological control on the phylloplane. APS, St Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  134. Woody ST, Spear RN, Nordheim EV, Ives AR, Andrews JH (2003) Single-leaf resolution of the temporal population dynamics of Aureobasidium pullulans on apple leaves. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4892–4900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Yang CH, Crowley DE, Borneman J, Keen NT (2001) Microbial phyllosphere populations are more complex than previously realized. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:3889–3894PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Á. Fonseca
    • 1
  • J. Inácio
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Recursos Microbiológicos (CREM), S.A. Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências e TecnologiaUniversidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal

Personalised recommendations