Spectral Doppler: Basic Principles and Instrumentation
Spectral Doppler ultrasound velocimetry involves systematic analysis of the spectrum of frequencies that constitute the Doppler signal. This chapter presents a general perspective on Doppler signal anlyses and describes the spectral Doppler ultrasound devices commercially available for clinical use. They include continuous-wave (CW) Doppler, pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler and duplex Doppler devices. Within the realm of obstetric usage, the application needs are diverse and require various choices of equipment. For example, fetal Doppler echocardiography requires advanced duplex ultrasound instrumentation, which combines the capabilities of high-resolution two-dimensional imaging with the PW Doppler mode and an acoustic power output appropriate for fetal application. For umbilical arterial hemodynamic assessment, simpler, substantially less expensive CW Doppler equipment with a spectral analyzer may be sufficient. It is essential therefore that one develop a basic understanding of the implementation of Doppler ultrasound technology.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Evans DH, McDicken WN, Skidmmoe R, Woodcock JP (1989) Doppler ultrasound: physics, instrumentaton and clinical applications. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- 2.Cooley JW, Tukey JW (1985) An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series. Math Comp 19:297–301Google Scholar
- 3.Brigham EO (1974) The Fast Fourier Transform. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
- 7.Welch PD (1967) The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodogram. IEEE Traps Audio Electroacoust AU-15:70–73Google Scholar
- 9.Kay SM, Marple SL (1981) Spectrum analysis — a modern perspective. Proc IEEE 69:1380–1419Google Scholar
- 10.Kadado T, Maulik D, Chakkrabarti S (1994) Comparison of parametric and nonparametric spectral estimation of continuous Doppler ultrasound shift waveforms. IEEE Proc Digit Sig Process WS 6:145–148Google Scholar
- 12.Jenkins GM, Watt DG (1969) Spectral analysis. Holden Day, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 13.Maulik D, Nanda NC, Saini VD (1984) Fetal Doppler echocardiography: methods and characterization: methods and characterization of normal and abnormal hemodynamics. Am J Cardioil 53:572–578Google Scholar
- 15.Eggleton RC, Johnston KW (1974) Real time mechanical scanning system compared with array techniques. IEEE Proc Sonics (Ultrasonics Cat No 74-CH 0896-1; 16)Google Scholar
- 16.VonRamm RC, Thurston FL (1976) Cardiac imaging using a phased array ultrasound system. Circulation 53: 258–262Google Scholar
- 17.Kremkau FW (1989) Transducers. In: Diagnostic ultrasound. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 65–104Google Scholar
- 18.Hatle L, Angelsen B (1985) Blood velocity measurement. In: Doppler ultrasound in cardiology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 32–73Google Scholar
- 19.Angelsen BAJ, Kristoffersen K (1983) Combination of ultrasound pulse echo amplitude imaging and Doppler blood velocity measurement. In: Proceeding of cardiac Doppler Symposium. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. Clearwater, FloridaGoogle Scholar