Spectral Doppler: Basic Principles and Instrumentation

  • Dev Maulik


Spectral Doppler ultrasound velocimetry involves systematic analysis of the spectrum of frequencies that constitute the Doppler signal. This chapter presents a general perspective on Doppler signal anlyses and describes the spectral Doppler ultrasound devices commercially available for clinical use. They include continuous-wave (CW) Doppler, pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler and duplex Doppler devices. Within the realm of obstetric usage, the application needs are diverse and require various choices of equipment. For example, fetal Doppler echocardiography requires advanced duplex ultrasound instrumentation, which combines the capabilities of high-resolution two-dimensional imaging with the PW Doppler mode and an acoustic power output appropriate for fetal application. For umbilical arterial hemodynamic assessment, simpler, substantially less expensive CW Doppler equipment with a spectral analyzer may be sufficient. It is essential therefore that one develop a basic understanding of the implementation of Doppler ultrasound technology.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Evans DH, McDicken WN, Skidmmoe R, Woodcock JP (1989) Doppler ultrasound: physics, instrumentaton and clinical applications. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cooley JW, Tukey JW (1985) An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series. Math Comp 19:297–301Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brigham EO (1974) The Fast Fourier Transform. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Macpherson PC, Meldrum SJ, Tunnstall-Pedoe DS (1981) Angioscan: a spectrum analyzer for use with ultrasonic Doppler velocimeters. J Med Eng Technol 5:84–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johnston KW, Brown P, Kassam M (1982) Problems of carotid Doppler scanning which can be overcome by using frequency analysis. Stroke 13:660–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maulik D, Saini VD, Nanda NC Rosenzweig MS (1982) Doppler evaluation of fetal hemodynamics. Ultrasound Med Biol 8:705–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Welch PD (1967) The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodogram. IEEE Traps Audio Electroacoust AU-15:70–73Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoskins PR (2002) Ultrasound techniques for measurement of blood flow and tissue motion. Biorheology 39: 451–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kay SM, Marple SL (1981) Spectrum analysis — a modern perspective. Proc IEEE 69:1380–1419Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kadado T, Maulik D, Chakkrabarti S (1994) Comparison of parametric and nonparametric spectral estimation of continuous Doppler ultrasound shift waveforms. IEEE Proc Digit Sig Process WS 6:145–148Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gill RW (1985) Measurement of blood flow by ultrasound: accuracy and sources of error. Ultrasound Med Biol 11:625–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jenkins GM, Watt DG (1969) Spectral analysis. Holden Day, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maulik D, Nanda NC, Saini VD (1984) Fetal Doppler echocardiography: methods and characterization: methods and characterization of normal and abnormal hemodynamics. Am J Cardioil 53:572–578Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bom N, Lancee C, Honkop J, Hugenhotz PC (1971) Ultrasonic viewer for cross-sectional analysis of moving cardiac structures. Biomed Eng 6:500–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Eggleton RC, Johnston KW (1974) Real time mechanical scanning system compared with array techniques. IEEE Proc Sonics (Ultrasonics Cat No 74-CH 0896-1; 16)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    VonRamm RC, Thurston FL (1976) Cardiac imaging using a phased array ultrasound system. Circulation 53: 258–262Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kremkau FW (1989) Transducers. In: Diagnostic ultrasound. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 65–104Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hatle L, Angelsen B (1985) Blood velocity measurement. In: Doppler ultrasound in cardiology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 32–73Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Angelsen BAJ, Kristoffersen K (1983) Combination of ultrasound pulse echo amplitude imaging and Doppler blood velocity measurement. In: Proceeding of cardiac Doppler Symposium. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. Clearwater, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haberman S, Friedman Z (1998) Multigated simultaneous spectral Doppler imaging: a new ultrasound modality. Obstet Gynecol 92:299–302PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dev Maulik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyWinthrop University HospitalMineolaUSA

Personalised recommendations