Multi-Agent Model of Trust in a Human Game

  • Catholijn M. Jonker
  • Sebastiaan Meijer
  • Dmytro Tykhonov
  • Tim Verwaart
Part of the Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems book series (LNE, volume 564)


Individual-level trust is formalized within the context of a multi-agent system that models human behaviour with respect to trust in the Trust and Tracing game. This is a trade game on commodity supply chains and networks, designed as a research tool and to be played by human players. The model of trust is characterised by its learning ability, its probabilistic nature, and how experience influences trust. The validity of the trust model is tested by comparing simulation results with aggregated results of human players. More specifically the simulations show the same effects as human plays on selected parameters like confidence, tracing cost, and the trust update coefficient on observable game statistics like number of cheats, traces, certificates, and guarantees.


Trust Management Agent Architecture Group Model Building Satisfaction Ratio Model Human Behaviour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G.J. Hofstede, P.B. Pedersen, and G. Hofstede, Exploring cultures: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures, Intercultural Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Camps, P. Diederen, G.J. Hofstede, and B. Vos (eds.), The emerging world of Chains and Networks, Reed Business Information, 2004.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Meijer and G.J. Hofstede, The Trust and Tracing game. In: Proceedings of 7th Int. workshop on experiential learning. IFIP WG 5.7 SIG conference, May 2003, Aalborg, Denmark.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.D. Duke, and J.L. Geurts, Policy games for strategic management, pathways into the unknown, Dutch University Press, Amsterdam, 2004.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Crookall, A guide to the literature on simulation / gaming, In: D. Crookall and K Arai, Simulation and gaming across disciplines and cultures, ISAGA, 1997.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Meijer, and T. Verwaart. Feasibility of Multi-agent Simulation for the Trust-and-Tracing Game. In: M. Ali and F. Esposito (Eds.), Innovations in Applied Artificial Intelligence, Proceedings of IEA/AIE 2005, LNAI 3533, 2005, pp. 145–154.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.M. Jonker, S. Meijer, D. Tykhonov, and T. Verwaart, Modelling and Simulation of Selling and Deceit for the Trust and Tracing Game. In: Proceedings of TRUST 2005: 8th Workshop on Trust in Agent Societies, to appear in LNCS, Springer-Verlag, 2005.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.M. Jonker, and J. Treur, 2001, An agent architecture for multi-attribute negotiation. In: B. Nebel (ed.), Proceedings of the 17th Int. Joint Conf. on AI, IJCAI’ 01, 2001, pp. 1195–1201.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Grandison, and M. Sloman, A Survey of Trust in Internet Applications, IEEE Communications Surveys, 2000.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. D. Ramchurn, D. Hunyh., and N.R. Jennings, Trust in Multi-Agent Systems, Knowledge Engineering Review, 2004.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Castelfranchi, and F. Rino, Social Trust: A Cognitive Approach, In: C. Castelfranchi, Y.H. Tan (eds.), Trust and Deception in Virtual Societies, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 55–90.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Jøsang, and S. Presti, Analysing the Relationship between Risk and Trust. In: C. Jensen, S. Poslad, T. Dimitrakos (eds.): Trust Management, Proceedings of iTrust 2004, LNCS 2995, 2004, pp. 135–145.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.M. Jonker, and J. Treur, Formal analysis of models for the dynamics of trust based on experiences. In: F.J. Garijo, M. Boman (eds.), Proceedings of MAAMAW’99, LNAI 1647, 1999, pp. 221–232.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. Amamor-Boadu, and S.A. Starbird, The value of anonimity in supply chain relationships, In: H.J. Bremmers, S.W.F. Omta, J.H. Trienekens, and E.F.M. Wubben (eds.), Dynamics in Chains and Networks, Wageningen Acedemic Publishers, Holland, 2004 pp. 238–244.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.K. Burgoon, G.M. Stoner, J.A. Bonito, and N.E. Dunbar, Trust and Deception in Mediated Communication. In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’03)-Track l, p.44.1, January 06–09, 2003.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.A.M. Vennix, Group Model Building: Facilitating Team Learning Using System Dynamics. Wiley, 1996.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Popper, K.R., The logic of scientific discovery, New York, 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catholijn M. Jonker
    • 1
  • Sebastiaan Meijer
    • 2
  • Dmytro Tykhonov
    • 1
  • Tim Verwaart
    • 2
  1. 1.Radboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Wageningen UR, Burg.Den HaagThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations