Advertisement

Requirements Negotiation

  • Paul Grünbacher
  • Norbert Seyff

Abstract

Negotiation is regarded as crucial in many disciplines, and negotiation methods and tools are increasingly studied by requirements engineering researchers and practitioners. The objectives of this chapter are to motivate the need for negotiation in requirements engineering, to introduce fundamental concepts and terminology, and to provide an overview about negotiation research. We structure the existing research (a) by presenting a general negotiation process highlighting typical negotiation stages; (b) by introducing a framework covering important dimensions of requirements negotiation comprising the conflict resolution strategy, the collaboration situation of the stakeholders, and the degree of negotiation tool support; and (c) by discussing and classifying existing negotiation tools using the general process and framework.

Keywords

Negotiation Negotiation process Conflict resolution Collaboration Negotiation tools Stakeholder win-win 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    (2002) Workbook on international negotiation. Netherlands institute of international relations Clingendael, 69p.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beck K (1999) Extreme programming explained: Embrace change. Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boehm BW (1988) A spiral model of software development and enhancement. IEEE Computer. 21(5): 61–72Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boehm BW (2000) Requirements that handle IKIWISI, COTS, and rapid change. IEEE Computer. 33(7): 99–102Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boehm BW (2000) Spiral development: Experience, principles and refinements. Han-sen WJ, Editor, CMU/SEI-00-SR-08Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boehm BW, Abi-Antoun M, Port D, Kwan J, Lynch A (1999) Requirements engineering, expectations management, and the two cultures. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, pp.14–22Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boehm BW, Bose P (1994) A collaborative spiral software process model based on Theory W. In: Proceedings of Conference on the Software Process, pp.59–68Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boehm BW, Bose P, Horowitz E, Lee MJ (1994) Software requirements as negotiated Win conditions. In: Proceedings of IEEE CS 1st International Conference on Requirements Engineering. Colorado Springs, Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boehm BW, Egyed AF, Kwan J, Port D, Shah A, Madachy R (1998) Using the Win-Win spiral model: A case study. IEEE Computer. 31(7): 33–44Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boehm BW, Port D, Al-Said M (2000) Avoiding the software model-clash spiderweb. IEEE Computer, pp.120–123Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boehm BW, Ross R (1989) Theory-W software project management: Principles and examples. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15(7): 902–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bose P, Zhou X (1999) WWAC: WinWin abstraction based decision coordination. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Work activities Coordination and Collaboration. San Francisco, California, United States: ACM Press, pp.127–136Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Briggs RO, de Vreede GJ, Nunamaker JF (2003) Collaboration Engineering with ThinkLets to pursue sustained success with group support systems. Journal of Man-agement Information Systems, 19(4): 31–63Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Briggs RO, Grünbacher P (2002) EasyWinWin: Managing complexity in requirements negotiation with GSS. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-35.02). Big Island, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Curtis B, Krasner H, Iscoe N (1988) A field study of the software design process for large systems. Communications of the ACM, 31: 1268–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Damian D (2001) Negotiation behavior and group interaction in face-to-face and distributed requirements negotiations: four case studies. In: Proceedings of the 6th Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering. Sydney, Australia, pp.22–31Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Damian D, Eberlein A, Shaw M, Gaines BR (2000) Using different communication media in requirements negotiation. IEEE Software. 17(3): 28–36Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Damian DE, Eberlein A, Shaw MLG, Gaines BR (2003) An exploratory study of facilitation in distributed requirements engineering. Requirements Engineering Journal 8(1):23–41Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Deutsch M (1973) The resolution of conflict. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Easterbrook S (1991) Handling conflict between domain descriptions with computer-supported negotiation. Knowledge Acquisition: An International Journal, 3: 255–289Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Egyed A, Grünbacher P (2004) Identifying requirements conflicts and cooperation: How quality attributes and automated traceability can help. IEEE Software, November/December, pp.50–54Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fickas S, Feather M (1995) Requirements monitoring in dynamic environments. In: Proceedings of 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, pp.140–147Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fisher R, Ury W (1983) Getting to yes: Negotiation agreement without giving in. New York. Penguin BooksGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fjermestad J, Hiltz R (2000) Case and field studies of group support systems: An empirical assessment. In: Proceedings of 33rd International Hawaii Conference on System Science, January, Mauii, Hawaii, 1: 4–7Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Galin A, Gross M, Gosalker G (1993) E-negotiation versus face-to-face negotiation. What has changed-If anything?, Tel Aviv University: Tel Aviv, Accessed on 3rd December 2004, http://www.recanati.tau.ac.il/research/IIBR/obhr/amira_miron.docGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grünbacher P, Braunsberger P (2003) Tool support for distributed requirements negotiation. In: Cooperative methods and tools for distributed software processes. De Lucia A, Gall H (Eds.) FrancoAngeli: Milano, Italy, pp.56–66.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grünbacher P, Briggs RO (2001) Surfacing tacit knowledge in requirements negotiation: Experiences using easy WinWin. In: Proceedings of 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 3–6 January, Maui, Hawaii, Vol.1, pp.1024Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grünbacher P, Halling M, Biffl S, Kitapci H, Boehm BW (2004) Integrating collaborative processes and quality assurance techniques: Experiences from requirements negotiation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(4): 9–29Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grünbacher P, Stallinger F, Maiden NAM, Franch X (2003) A negotiation-based framework for requirements engineering in multi-stakeholder distributed systems. Requirements Engineering and Open Systems (REOS). Monterey, CA, Accessed on 3rd December 2004, http://www.cs.uoregon.edu/~fickas/REOS/Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hall RJ (2002) Open modeling in multi-stakeholder distributed systems: requirements engineering for the 21st Century. In: Proceedings of 1st Workshop on the State of the Art in Automated Software Engineering. U.C. Irvine, Institute for Software ResearchGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Herlea DE (1998) Computer supported collaborative requirements negotiation. In: Proceedings of KAW’98. Banff, Alberta, Canada, Accessed on 3rd December, 2004, http://ksi.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/KAW/KAW98/herlea/Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Herlea DE (1999) User participation in requirements negotiation. ACM SIGGROUP Bulletin. 20(1): 30–35Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    In H, Roy S (2001) Visualization issues for software requirements negotiation. In: Proceedings of Computer Software and Applications Conference, pp. 10–15Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jelassi MT, Foroughi A (1989) Negotiation support systems: An overview of design issues and existing software. Decision Support Systems, 5: 167–181Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Johansen R (1988) Groupware: Computer support for business teams, New York. The Free PressGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Keeney RL, Raiffa H (1976) Decisions with multiple objectives: Preferences and value tradeoffs. J. Wiley & Sons, NYGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kersten G (2004) E-negotiation systems: Interaction of people and technologies to resolve Conflicts. In: Proceedings of 3rd Annual Form on Online Dispute Resolution 5–6 July, Melbourne AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kersten G, Noronha SJ (1997) Negotiation via the World Wide Web: A cross-cultural study of decision making. An Interim Report, Access on 3rd December 2004, http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Publications/Documents/IR-97-052.pdfGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kersten GE, Lo G (2003) Aspire: Integration of Negotiation Support System and Software Agents for E-Business Negotiation. International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management, 1(3): 293–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kersten GE, Noronha SJ (1999) Negotiations via the World Wide Web: A crosscultural study of decision making. Group Decision and Negotiations, 8(3): 251–279Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kotonya G, Sommerville I (1996) Requirements engineering with viewpoints. Software Engineering Journal, 11: 5–18Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lamsweerde Av (2000) Requirements engineering in the year 00: A research perspective. In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering. Limerick, Ireland, pp.5–19Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lamsweerde Av (2001) Goal-oriented requirements engineering: A guided tour. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Requirements Engineering’01 Tutorial NotesGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lim LH, Benbasat I (1992–93) A Theoretical Perspective of Negotiation Support Systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 9(3): 27–44Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nunamaker JF, Briggs RO, Mittleman DD, Vogel DR, Balthazard PA (1997) Lessons from a dozen years of group support systems research: A discussion of lab and field findings. Journal of Management Information Systems, 13(3): 163–207Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nuseibeh B, Easterbrook S (2000) RE: A Roadmap. In: Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Software Engineering, Special Issue: ACM-IEEE, pp.37–46Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Park J, Port D, Boehm BW (1999) Supporting distributed collaborative prioritization. in Software Engineering Conference, pp. 560–563Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pruitt DG, Carnevale PJ (1993) Negotiation in social conflict. Buckingham. Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rapoport A (1974) Game theory as a theory of conflict resolution. D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, HollandGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Robbins S (1989) Organizational behavior: Concepts, controversies and applications. 4th edition, Prentice Hall, NJGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Robinson WN, Fickas S (1994) Supporting multi-perspective requirements engineering. In Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Requirements Engineering, pp.206–215Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Robinson WN, Volkov V (1998) Supporting the negotiation life cycle. Communications of ACM, 41(5): 95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schmid B, Lindemann M (1993) Elements of a reference model for electronic markets. In: Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp.193–200Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schoop M, Jertila A, List T (2003) Negoist: a negotiation support system for electronic business-to-business negotiations in e-commerce. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 47(3): 371–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Seyff N, Grünbacher P, Maiden NAM, Tosar A (2004) RE Tools Go Mobile. In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (Research Demo), IEEE Computer Society Press.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sharp H, Finkelstein A, Galal G (1998) Stakeholder identification in the requirements engineering process. In: Proceedings of 10th International Workshop on Database & Expert Systems Applications. Florence, Italy, pp.387–391Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Souren P (2001) Collective memory support in negotiation: A theoretical framework. In: Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp.1–8Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Standish Group (2001) Extreme CHAOS report. The Standish Group, 196 Old Townhouse Road, West Yarmouth, MA 02673 — http://www.standishgroup.comGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Strauss A (1978) Negotiations: Varieties, contexts, processes and social order. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sutcliffe AG (2002) User-Centred Requirements Engineering. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Thomas K (1976) Conflict and conflict management. In: Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Dunnette MD (Ed.) Rand McNally College Publishing Company, Chicago, pp.889–935Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Grünbacher
  • Norbert Seyff

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations