Self-Organization in Pedestrian Flow

  • S. Hoogendoorn
  • W. Daamen


Microscopic simulation models predict different forms of self-organization in pedestrian flows, such as the dynamic formation of lanes in bi-directional pedestrian flows. The experimental research presented in this paper provides more insight into these dynamic phenomena as well as exposing other forms of self-organization, i.e. in case of over-saturated bottlenecks or crossing pedestrian flows. The resulting structures resemble states occurring in granular matter and solids, including their imperfections (so-called vacancies). Groups of pedestrians that are homogeneous in terms of desired walking speeds and direction appear to form structures consisting of overlapping layers. This basic pattern forms the basis of other more complex patterns emerging in multi-directional pedestrian flow: in a bi-directional pedestrian flow, dynamic lanes are formed which can be described by the layer structure. Diagonal patterns can be identified in crossing pedestrian flows. This paper both describes these structures and the conditions under which they emerge, as well as the implications for theory and modeling of pedestrian flows.


pedestrian flow self-organization experimental research 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Hoogendoorn
    • 1
  • W. Daamen
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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