Echinodermata pp 139-165 | Cite as

Echinoderms: Their Culture and Bioactive Compounds

  • M.S. Kelly 
Part of the Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology book series (PMSB, volume 39)


Of the five extant classes of echinoderms, it is the sea urchins (Echinoidea) and the sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) that are both commercially fished and heavily overexploited. In sea urchins, it is the gonad of both males and females, normally referred to as ‘roe’, that is a sought-after food. In the sea cucumber, the principal product is the boiled and dried body-wall or ‘bêche-de-mer’ for which there is an increasing demand. Many sea urchin and sea cucumber fisheries still have no management system or restrictions in place, and for those that do, the prognosis for catches to continue even at a reduced level is poor. Cultivation of these species increasingly becomes a necessity, both for stock enhancement programs and as a means to meet market demand. Sea urchin culture has been practised on a large scale in Japan for many decades, and effective methods for the culture and reseeding of species in these waters have been long established. Juvenile urchins are produced in their millions in state-sponsored hatcheries, for release to managed areas of seafloor. Outside of Japan, sea urchin cultivation is still a fairly recent practice, less than 10 years old, and largely still at a research level, although a range of species are now being produced in a variety of different culture systems. It is essential that the culture systems are adapted to be species-specific and meet with local environmental constraints. Sea cucumber cultivation originated in Japan in the 1930s and is now well established there and in China. Methods for mass cultivation of the tropical Holothuria scabra are now well established and practised in India, Australia, Indonesia, the Maldives and the Solomon Islands, with the focus of the research effort for both temperate and tropical species being centred on the production of juveniles in hatcheries for the restoration and enhancement of wild stocks. Like many other marine organisms, echinoderms have been, and continue to be, examined as a source of biologically active compounds with biomedical applications. Sea cucumber has been valued in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years as a cure for a wide variety of ailments. Some more recently isolated compounds, mainly from sea cucumbers and starfish, and including those with antitumour, antiviral, anticoagulant and antimicrobial activity, are summarised below. When wild stocks decline, the demand created in the market place raises the price of the product and, consequently, culturing is more likely to become viable economically. As this review shows, there have been dramatic advances in the culture methods of sea urchins and sea cucumbers in the last 10-15 years, to the extent that one can conclude that currently the major obstacles to successful cultivation are indeed economic rather than biological. Hence the future of the echinoculture industry is closely linked to that of the fisheries, whose fate will ultimately determine the market forces that will shape this growing industry.


Artificial Diet Paracentrotus Lividus Strongylocentrotus Droebachiensis Stock Enhancement Program DEStech Publication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aas K (2004) Technology for sea-based farming of sea urchins. In: Lawrence JM, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech Publications, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, pp 366–373Google Scholar
  2. Abraham TJ, Nagarajan J, Shanmugam SA (2002) Antimicrobial substances of potential biomedical importance from holothurian species. Indian J Mar Sci 31:161–164Google Scholar
  3. Agatsuma Y, Sakai Y, Andrew NL (2004) Enhancement of Japan's sea urchin fisheries. In: Lawrence JM, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech Publications, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, pp 18–36Google Scholar
  4. Andrew NL, Agatsuma Y, Ballesteros E, Bazhin AG, Creaser EP, Barnes DKA, Botsford LW, Bradbury A, Campbell A, Dixon J, Einarsson S, Gerring PK, Hebert K, Hunter M, Hur SB, Johnson CR, Juinio-Menez MA, Kalvass P, Miller RJ, Moreno CA, Palleiro JS, Rivas D, Robinson SML, Schroeter SC, Steneck RS, Vadas RL, Woodby DA, Xiaoqi Z (2002) Status and management of world sea urchin fisheries. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 40:343–425Google Scholar
  5. Barnes DKA, Crook AC (2001) Implications of temporal and spatial variability in Paracentrotus lividus populations to the associated commercial coastal fishery. Hydrobiologia 465(1–3):95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes DKA, Verling E, Crook A, Davidson I, O'Mahoney M (2002) Local population disappearance follows (20 yr after) cycle collapse in a pivotal ecological species. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 226:311–313Google Scholar
  7. Battaglene SC (1999) Culture of tropical sea cucumbers for stock enhancement. Naga, ICLARM Q 22(4):4–11Google Scholar
  8. Battaglene SC, Seymour JE (1998) Detachment and grading of the tropical sea cucumber sandfish, Holothuria scabra, juveniles from settlement substrates. Aquaculture 159:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Battaglene SC, Seymour JE, Ramofafia C (1999) Survival and growth of cultured juvenile sea cucumbers. Aquaculture 178:293–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell MV, Dick JR, Kelly MS (2001). Biosynthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid in the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Lipids 36(1):79–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Borisovets EE, Zadorozhny PA, Kalinina MV, Lepskaya NV, Yakush EV (2002) Changes of major carotenoids in gonads of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus intermedius and S. nudus) at maturation. Comp Biochem Physiol B 132(4):779–790CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruckner AW, Johnson KA, Field JD (2003) Conservation strategies for sea cucumbers: can CITES Appendix II listing promote sustainable international trade? SPC Beche-de-Mer Info Bull 18:24–36Google Scholar
  13. Byrne M (1993) Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland. Mar Biol 104:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caers M, Couteau P, Lombeida P, Sorgeloos P (1998) The effect of lipid supplementation on growth and fatty acid composition of Tapes philippinarum spat. Aquaculture 162(3–4):287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Candia Carnevali MD, Bonasoro F (2001) Microscopic overview of crinoid regeneration. Microscopy Res Tech 55:403–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Candia Carnevali MD, Bonasoro F, Patruno M, Thorndyke MC, Galassi S (2001) PCB exposure and regeneration in crinoids (Echinodermata). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 215:155–167Google Scholar
  17. Chludil HD, Muniain CC, Seldes AM, Maier MS (2002) Cytotoxic and antifungal triterpene glycosides from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis. J Nat Prod 65:860–865CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Conand C, Byrne M (1993) A review of recent developments in the world of sea cucumber fisheries. Mar Fish Rev 55:1–13Google Scholar
  19. Cook EJ (1999) Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): factors effecting its somatic growth and gonadal growth and development. PhD Thesis, Napier University, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  20. Cook EJ, Kelly MS, Mckenzie JD (1998) Gonad development and somatic growth in the green sea urchin, Psammechinus miliaris fed artificial and natural diets. J Shellfish Res 17(5):1549–1555Google Scholar
  21. Cuthbert FM, Hooper RG, McKeever T (1995) Sea urchin aquaculture phase I: sea urchin feeding and ranching experiments. Report of Project AUI-503. Canadian Centre for Fisheries Innovation, Government of NewfoundlandGoogle Scholar
  22. Dalgaard P, Buch P, Silberg S (2002) Seafood spoilage predictor — development and distribution of a product specific application software. Int J Food Microbiol 73(2–3):343–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dalzell P, Adams TJH, Polunin NVC (1996) Coastal fisheries in the Pacific Islands. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 34:395–531Google Scholar
  24. De Jong-Westman M, Qian P-Y, March BE, Carefoot TH (1995) Artificial diets in sea urchin culture: effects of dietary protein level and other additives on egg quality, larval morphometrics and larval survival in the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Can J Zool 73:2080–2090Google Scholar
  25. Ebert TA (1998) An analysis of the importance of allee effects in management of the red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. In: Mooi R, Telford T (eds) Echinoderms: San Francisco. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 619–627Google Scholar
  26. Fenaux L, Cellario C, Rassoulzadegan F (1988) Sensitivity of different morphological stages of the larva of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) to quantity and quality of food. In: Burke R, Mladenov P, Lambert P, Parsley R (eds) Echinoderm biology. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 259–266Google Scholar
  27. Fernandez C (1997) Effect of diet on the biochemical composition of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) under natural and rearing conditions (effect of diet on biochemical composition of urchins). Comp Biochem Physiol A 118(4):1377–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fernandez C, Boudouresque CF (2000) Nutrition of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fed different artificial food. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 204:131–141Google Scholar
  29. Floreto EAT, Techima S, Ishikawa M (1996) The effects of seaweed diets on the growth, lipid and fatty acids of juveniles of the white sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. Fish Sci 62(4):589–593Google Scholar
  30. Gana AE, Merca FE (2002) Isolation and purification of a cytotoxic lectin from brown sea cucumber by affinity chromatography. Philipp Agric Sci 85:236–247Google Scholar
  31. George SB, Lawrence JM, Lawrence AL, Smiley J, Plank L (2001) Carotenoids in the adult diet enhance egg and juvenile production in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Aquaculture 199(3–4):353–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goebel N, Barker MF (1998) Artificial diets supplemented with carotenoid pigments as feeds for sea urchins. In: Mooi R, Telford M (eds) Echinoderms: San Francisco. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 667–672Google Scholar
  33. Gonzalez LP, Castilla JC, Guisado C (1987) Effect of larval diet and rearing temperature on metamorphosis and juvenile survival of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) (Echinoidea, Echinidae). J Shellfish Res 6(2):109–115Google Scholar
  34. Griffiths M, Perrott P (1976) Seasonal changes in the carotenoids of the sea urchin Strongy-locentrotus droebachiensis. Comp Biochem Physiol B 55:435–441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Grosjean P, Spirlet C, Gosselin P (1998) Land-based, closed-cycle echinoculture of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) (Echinoidea: Echinodermata): a long-term experiment at a pilot scale. J Shellfish Res 17(5):1523–1531Google Scholar
  36. Guillou M, Lumingas LJL (1999) Variation in the reproductive strategy of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) related to food availability. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 79:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hagen NT (1996) Echinoculture: from fishery enhancement to closed cycle cultivation. World Aquacult 27(4): 6–19Google Scholar
  38. Hagen NT (1998) Effect of food availability and body size on out-of-season gonad yield in the green sea urchin, Strongyocentrotus droebachiensis. J Shellfish Res 17(5):1533–1539Google Scholar
  39. Hagen NT (2000) Echinoderm culture. In: Stickney RR (ed) Encyclopedia of aquaculture. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 247–253Google Scholar
  40. Hammer HS, Watts SA, Lawrence JM, Lawrence AL, McClintock JB (2000) The effect of dietary protein concentration on gonad composition and gametic condition in the sea urchin Lyechinus variegatus. Am Zool 40(6):1042–1043Google Scholar
  41. Harris LG, Tyrell MC, Williams CT, Sisson CG, Chavanich S, Chester CM (2001) Declining sea urchin recruitment in the Gulf of Maine: is overharvesting to blame? In: Barker M (ed) Echinoderms 2000. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 439–444Google Scholar
  42. Haug T, Kjuul AK, Styrvold OB, Sandsdalen E, Olsen OM, Stensvag K (2002) Antibacterial activity in Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Echinoidea), Cucumaria frondosa (Holothuroidea), and Asterias rubens (Asteroidea) J Invertebr Pathol 81(2):94–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Havardsson B, Imsland AK (1999) The effect of astaxanthin in feed and environment temperature on carotenoid concentration in the gonads of the green sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis Müller. J World Aqua Soc 30(2):208–218Google Scholar
  44. Higuchi R, Inagaki K, Natori T, Komori T, Kawajiri S (1991) Biologically-active glycosides from Asteroidea 25. Glycosphingolipids from the starfish Asterina pectinifera. 2. Structure of three ganglioside molecular-species and a homogeneous ganglioside, and biological-activity of the ganglioside. Liebigs Ann 1:1–10Google Scholar
  45. Higuchi R, Inukai K, Jhou JX, Honda M, Komori T, Tsuji S, Nagai Y (1993) Biologically-active glycosides from Asteroidea 31. Glycosphingolipids from the starfish Asterias amurensis versicolor Sladen. 2. Structure and biological-activity of ganglioside molecular-species Liebigs Ann 4:359–366Google Scholar
  46. Higuchi R, Matsumoto S, Fujita M, Komori T, Sasaki T (1995) Biologically-active glycosides from Asteroidea 32. Glycosphingolipids from the starfish Astropecten latespinosus. 2. Structure of two new ganglioside molecular-species and biological-activity of the ganglioside. Liebigs Ann 3:545–550Google Scholar
  47. Himmelman JH (1977) Reproductive cycle of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Can J Zool 56:1828–1836Google Scholar
  48. Ito S, Kitamura H (1997) Induction of larval metamorphosis in the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus by periphytic diatoms. Hydrobiologia 358:281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jensen M (1969) Breeding and growth of Psammechinus miliaris. Ophelia 7:65–78Google Scholar
  50. Jimmy RA, Kelly MS, Beaumont AR (2003) The effect of diet type and quantity on the development of common sea urchin larvae Echinus esculentus. Aquaculture 220(1–4):261–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kalinin VI, Prokofieva NG, Likhatskaya GN, Schentsova EB, Agafonova IG, Avilov SA, Drozdova OA (1996) Hemolytic activities of triterpene glycosides from the holothurian order dendrochirotida: some trends in the evolution of this group of toxins. Toxicon 34(4):475–483CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kaneko M, Kisa F, Yamada K, Miyamoto T, Higuchi R (2003) Structure of a new neuritogenic-active ganglioside from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. Eur J Org Chem 6:1004–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kawakami T, Tsushima M, Katabami Y, Mine M, Ishida A, Matsuno T (1998) Effect of beta, beta-carotene, beta-echinenone, astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, vitamin A and vitamin E on Echinoderms: Their Culture and Bioactive Compounds 161 the biological defence of the sea urchin Pseudocentrotus depressus. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 226(2):165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Keesing JK, Hall KC (1998) Review of the status of world sea urchin fisheries points to opportunities for aquaculture. J Shellfish Res (5):1597–1604Google Scholar
  55. Kelly MS (2000) The reproductive cycle of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in a Scottish sea loch. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 80:909–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kelly MS (2001) Environmental parameters controlling gametogenesis in the echinoid Psammechinus miliaris. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 266(1):67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kelly MS (2002) Survivorship and growth rates of hatchery-reared sea urchins. Aquacult Int 10:309–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kelly MS (2004) Echinus esculentus, a fully farmed approach for a designer roe? In: Lawrence JM, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech Publications, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, pp 256–263Google Scholar
  59. Kelly MS, Brodie CC, McKenzie JD (1998) Somatic and gonadal growth of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) maintained in polyculture with the Atlantic salmon. J Shellfish Res 17(5):1557–1562Google Scholar
  60. Kelly MS, Hunter AJ, Scholfield C, McKenzie JD (2000) Morphology and survivorship of larval Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinoidea: Echinodermata) in response to varying food quantity and quality. Aquaculture 183:223–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kelly MS, Owen PV, Pantazis P (2001) The commercial potential of the common sea urchin Echinus esculentus from the west coast of Scotland. Hydrobiologia 465(1–3):85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kennedy E (2002) Effect of proteins, lipids, minerals, and pigment in prepared diets on the somatic growth of juvenile green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. MSc thesis, Memorial University of NewfoundlandGoogle Scholar
  63. Klinger TS, Lawrence JM, Lawrence AL (1994) Digestive characteristics of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fed prepared feeds. J World Aqua Soc 25(4):489–496Google Scholar
  64. Lackie JM, Dow JAT (2000) The dictionary of cell and molecular biology, 3rd edn. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Lawrence JM (2001) Edible sea urchins: biology and ecology. Developments in aquaculture and fisheries science 32. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 419 ppGoogle Scholar
  66. Lawrence JM, Olave S, Otaiza R, Lawrence AL, Bustos E (1997) Enhancement of gonad production in the sea urchin Loxechinus albus in Chile fed extruded feeds. J World Aqua Soc 28(1):91–96Google Scholar
  67. Leighton P (1995) Contributions towards the development of echinoculture in North Atlantic waters with particular reference to Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). PhD thesis, National University of Ireland, GalwayGoogle Scholar
  68. Lessios HA, Cubit JD, Robertson DR, Shulman MJ, Parker MR, Garrity SD, Levings SC (1984) Mass mortality of Diadema antillarum on the Caribbean coast of Panama. Coral Reefs 3(4):173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li ZG, Wang HL, Li JZ, Zhang GS, Gao CJ (2000) Basic and clinical study on the antithrombotic mechanism of glycosaminoglycan extracted from sea cucumber Chinese Med J Peking 113(8):706–711Google Scholar
  70. Liyana-Pathirana CM, Shahidi F (2003) Effect of an artificial diet on lipid, free amino acid, and carotenoid composition of green sea urchin gonads. Off-flavors in aquaculture. ACS Symp Ser 848:83–93Google Scholar
  71. Liyana-Pathirana CM, Shahidi F, Whittick A (2002) Effect of an artificial diet on the biochemical composition of the gonads of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Food Chem 79(4):461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. MacBride EW (1903) The development of Echinus esculentus together with some points on the development of E. miliaris and E. acutus. Philos Trans R Soc B 195:285–330Google Scholar
  73. Maier MS, Roccatagliata AJ, Kuriss A, Chludil H, Seldes AM, Pujol CA, Damonte EB (2001) Two new cytotoxic and virucidal trisulfated triterpene glycosides from the Antarctic sea cucumber Staurocucumis liouvillei. J Nat Prod 64(6):732–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Matsuno T, Tsushima M (2004) Carotenoids in sea urchins. In: Lawrence JM (ed) (2001) Edible sea urchins: biology and ecology. Developments in aquaculture and fisheries science 32. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 115–138Google Scholar
  75. McBride SC, Lawrence JM, Lawrence AL, Mulligan TJ (1998) The effect of protein concentration in prepared diets on growth, feeding rate, total organic absorption, and gross assimilation efficiency of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. J Shellfish Res 17(5):1562–1570Google Scholar
  76. McEdward LR (1984) Morphometric and metabolic analysis of the growth and development of an echinopluteus. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 82:259–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McLaughlin G, Kelly MS (2001) Effect of artificial diets containing carotenoid-rich microalgae on gonad growth and colour in the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin). J Shellfish Res 20(1):377–382Google Scholar
  78. Mercier A, Battaglene SC, Hamel J-F (2000) Settlement preferences and early migration of the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. J Exp Biol Mar Ecol 249:89–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Migas EA, Klemenchenko EG (1990) Pharmacological effects of the sea-cucumber Stichopus japonicus extract. Biol Morya-Mar Biol 5:72–76Google Scholar
  80. Mourao PAS, Pereira MS (1999) Searching for alternatives to heparin — sulfated fucans from marine invertebrates. Trends Cardiovas Med 9(8):225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mourao PAS, Pereira MS, Pavao MSG, Mulloy B, Tollefsen DM, Mowinckel MC, Abildgaard U (1996) Structure and anticoagulant activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm — sulfated fucose branches on the polysaccharide account for its high anticoagulant action. J Biol Chem 271(39):23973–23984CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Moylan E (1997) Gonad conditioning and wild stock enhancement of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus on the west coasts of Ireland. Bull Aquacult Assoc Can 97(1):38–45Google Scholar
  83. Murata Y, Yokoyama M, Unuma T, Sata NU, Kuwahara R, Kaneniwa M (2002) Seasonal changes of bitterness and pulcherrimine content in gonads of green sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus at Iwaka in Fukushima prefecture. Fish Sci 68(1):184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Murray AP, Muniain C, Seldes AM, Maier MS (2001) Patagonicoside A: a novel antifungal disulfated triterpene glycoside from the sea cucumber Psolus patagonicus. Tetrahedron 57(47):9563–9568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Olave S, Bustos E, Lawrence JM, Carcamo P (2001) The effect of size and diet on gonad production by the Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus. J World Aqua Soc 32(2):210–214Google Scholar
  86. Otero-Villanueva M, Kelly MS, Burnell G (2004) How diet influences energy partitioning in the regular echinoid Psammechinus miliaris; constructing an energy budget. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 304(2):159–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pantazis P, Kelly MS, Connolly JG, Black KD (2000) Effect of artificial diet on growth, lipid utilisation, and gonad biochemistry in the adult sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. J Shellfish Res 19(2):995–1001Google Scholar
  88. Pearce CM, Daggett TL, Robinson SMC (2002a) Effect of protein source ratio and protein concentration in prepared diets on gonad yield and quality of the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Aquaculture 214(1–4):307–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pearce CM, Daggett TL, Robinson SMC (2002b) Effect of binder type and concentration on prepared feed stability and gonad yield and quality of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Aquaculture 205:301–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Plank LR, Lawrence JM, Lawrence AL, Olvera RM (2002) The effect of dietary carotenoids on gonad production and carotenoid profiles in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. J World Aqua Soc 33(2):127–137Google Scholar
  91. Ramofafia C, Foyle TP, Bell JD (1996) Growth of juvenile Actinopyga mauritania (Holothuroidea) in captivity. Aquaculture 152:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ramofafia C, Battaglene SC, Bell JD, Byrne M (2000) Reproductive biology of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogilva in the Solomon Islands. Mar Biol 136:1045–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Reichenbach N, Nishar Y, Saeed A (1996) Species and size-related trends in asexual propagation of commercially important species of tropical sea cucumbers (Holothuria). J World Aqua Soc 27(4):475–482Google Scholar
  94. Robinson SM (2004a) A roundtable discussion of the future of aquaculture of sea urchins. In: Lawrence JM, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech Publications, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, pp 387-392Google Scholar
  95. Robinson SM (2004b) The evolving role of aquaculture in the global production of sea urchins. In: Lawrence JM, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech Publications, Pennsylvania, pp 343–357Google Scholar
  96. Robinson SMC, Castell JD, Kennedy EJ (2002) Developing suitable colour in the gonads of cultured green sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis). Aquaculture 206:289–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rodriguez J, Castro R, Riguera R (1991) Holothurinosides–new antitumor nonsulfated triterpenoid glycosides from the sea-cucumber Holothuria forskalii. Tetrahedron 47(26):4753–4762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sakai Y, Tajima KI, Agatsuma Y (2004) Mass production of seed of the Japanese edible sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and Strongylocentrotus nudus. In: Lawrence JM, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech Publications, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, pp 287–298Google Scholar
  99. Scheibling RE, Hennigar AW (1997) Recurrent outbreaks of disease in sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in Nova Scotia: evidence for a link with large-scale meteorologic and oceanographic events. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 152(1–3):155–165Google Scholar
  100. Sivertsen K (1996) Incidence, occurrence and distribution of the nematode Echinodermata matsi in its echinoid host, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, in northern Norway. Mar Biol 126:703–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sivertsen K (2004) Harvestable sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis resources along the Norwegian coast. In: Lawrence JM, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech Publications, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 85 ppGoogle Scholar
  102. Shpigel M, McBride SC, Marciano S, Lupatsch I (2004) Propagation of the European sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Israel. In: Lawrence J, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech, Publications, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 85 ppGoogle Scholar
  103. Sloan NA (1984) Echinoderm fisheries of the world: a review. In Keegan BF, O'Connor BDS (eds) Proc 5th Int Echinoderm Conf, Galway. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 109–124Google Scholar
  104. Spirlet C, Grosjean P, Jangoux M (2001) Cultivation of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) on extruded feeds: digestive efficiency, somatic and gonadal growth. Aquacult Nutr 7(2):91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stabili L, Pagliara P (1994) Antibacterial protection in Marthasterias glacialis eggs–characterization of lysozyme-like activity. Comp Biochem Physiol B 109(4):709–713CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Stabili L, Pagliara P, Roch P (1996) Antibacterial activity in the coelomocytes of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Comp Biochem Physiol B 113:639–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Strathmann RR, Fenaux L, Strathmann MF (1992) Heterochronic developmental plasticity in larval sea urchins and its implications for evolution of non-feeding larvae. Evolution 46:972–986Google Scholar
  108. Tajima K, Lawrence M (2001) Disease in edible urchins. In: Lawrence JM (ed) Edible sea urchins: biology and ecology. Developments in aquaculture and fisheries science 32. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 139–148Google Scholar
  109. Tapon-Bretaudiere J, Chabut D, Zierer M, Matou, S, Helley D, Bros A, Mourao PAS, Fischer AM (2002) A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm modulates in vitro fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis. Mol Cancer Res 1(2):96–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Thorndyke MC, Chen WC, Beesley PW, Patruno M (2001) Molecular approach to echinoderm regeneration. Microsc Res Tech 55(6):474–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Watts SA, Boettger SA, McClintock JB, Lawrence JM (1998) Gonad production in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamark) fed prepared diets. J Shellfish Res 17(5):1591–1595Google Scholar
  112. Xing J, Chia FS (2000) Opsonin-like molecule found in coelomic fluid of a sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota. Mar Biol 136(6):979–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yaacob HB, Kim KH, Mustapha MS (1994) Antinociceptive effect of the water extract of Malaysian sea-cucumber. Asia Pac J Pharmacol 9(1):23–28Google Scholar
  114. Yamada K, Matsubara R, Kaneko M, Miyamoto T, Higuchi R (2001) Constituents of Holothuroidea. 10. Isolation and structure of a biologically active ganglioside molecular species from the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota. Chem Pharm Bull 49(4):447–452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Yang PY, Collin P, Madden T, Chan D, Sweeney-Gotsch B, McConkey D, Newman RA (2003) Inhibition of proliferation of PC3 cells by the branched-chain fatty acid, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, is associated with inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Prostate 55(4):281–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Young A, Phillips D, Waring C, Kelly MS (2004) Carotenoid profiles of the edible echinoid Paracentrotus lividus. In: Lawrence J, Guzman O (eds) Sea urchins: fisheries and aquaculture. DEStech Publications, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 172 ppGoogle Scholar
  117. Zou ZR, Yi YH, Wu HM, Wu JH, Liaw CC, Lee KH (2003) Intercedensides A-C, three new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Mensamaria intercedens Lampert. sJ Nat Prod 66(8):1055–1060CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.S. Kelly 
    • 1
  1. 1.Scottish Association for Marine Science, ObanArgyll, ScotlandUK

Personalised recommendations