Part of the
Springer Praxis Books
book series (PRAXIS)
Air—sea interaction associated with tropical intraseasonal variability (ISV) and, particularly, the Madden—Julian Oscillation (MJO) is of interest for three reasons. First, variations of the air—sea fluxes of heat and moisture may be fundamental to mechanisms of tropical ISV. For instance, air—sea interaction may promote the slow eastward propagation of the MJO and its northward propagation in the Indian summer monsoon. Besides playing a critical role for the interplay between convection and dynamics, surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum drive sea surface temperature (SST) perturbations that may feedback to the surface fluxes and ultimately to the atmospheric dynamics, thus, for instance, contributing to the growth of the MJO. Second, the episodic variations of surface momentum, heat, and freshwater fluxes driven by atmospheric ISV may play a role in the maintenance and low-frequency variability of the warm pool in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. For example, the MJO induces transports in the equatorial west Pacific that act in the mean to remove about the same amount of heat from the warm pool as is provided by the mean surface heat flux (Ralph et al., 1997). From the opposite perspective of the ocean driving the atmosphere, interannual variations of SST in the warm pool may also drive interannual variations in MJO activity, which may bear on the ability to predict seasonal variations of MJO activity. Third, the MJO forces surface currents that drive SST variations at the eastern edge of the warm pool (e.g., Kessler et al., 1995). Kelvin waves are also efficiently excited by the MJO (e.g., Hendon et al., 1998), which radiate into the eastern Pacific where they can perturb the SST (e.g., Giese and Harrison, 1991; Zhang, 2001; McPhaden, 2002). These intraseasonal SST variations may lead to a rectified coupled-response, which plays a role in the evolution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (e.g., Bergman et al, 2001; Zhang and Gottschalck, 2002).
KeywordsIndian Summer Monsoon Surface Heat Flux Warm Pool Intraseasonal Variability Freshwater Flux
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Anderson, S. P., R. A. Weller, and R. Lukas (1996) Surface buoyancy forcing and the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool: Observation and ID model results. J. Climate
, 3056–3085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anyamba, E. K. and B. C. Weare (1995) Temporal variability of the 40–50 day oscillation in tropical convection. Int. J. Climatol.
, 379–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergman, J. W., H. H. Hendon, and K. M. Weickmann (2001) Intraseasonal variation of west Pacific convection at the onset of the 1997–98 El Niño. J. Climate.
, 1702–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhat, G. S., S. Gadgil, P. U. Hareesh Kumar, S. R. Kalse, P. Madhusoodanan, V. S. N. Muriz, C. U. K. Prasada Rao, V. Ramosh Babu, L. U. G. Rao., R. R. Rao, et al.
(2001) BOBMEX: The Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.
, 2217–2243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colón, E., J. Lindesay, and M. J. Suarez (2002) The impact of surface flux-and circulation-driven feedbacks on simulated Madden-Julian Oscillations. J. Climate
, 624–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cronin, M. F., M. J. McPhaden, and R. H. Weisberg (2000) Wind-forced reversing jets in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Ocean.
, 657–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cronin, M. F. and M. J. McPhaden (1997) The upper ocean heat balance in the western equatorial Pacific warm pool during September–December 1992. J. Geophys. Res.
, 8533–8553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emanuel, K. A. (1987) An air-sea interaction model of intraseasonal oscillations in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2324–2340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fedorov, A. V. (2002) The response of the coupled tropical ocean-atmosphere to westerly wind bursts. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.
, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, M., P. Hacker, and R. Lukas (1998) Upper ocean heat and salt balances in response to a westerly wind burst in the western equatorial Pacific during TOGA COARE. J. Geophys. Res.
, 10289–10311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, M., R. Lukas, P. Hacker, R. A. Weller, and S. P. Anderson (2000) Upper-ocean heat and salt balances in the western equatorial Pacific in response to the intraseasonal oscillation during TOGA COARE. J. Climate
, 2409–2427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fink, A. and P. Speth (1997) Some potential forcing mechanisms of the year-to-year variability of the tropical convection and its intraseasonal (25–70 day) variability. Int. J. Climatol.
, 1513–1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flatau, M., P. J. Flatau, P. Phoebus, and P. P. Niiler (1997) The feedback between equatorial convection and local radiative and evaporative processes: The implications for intraseasonal oscillations. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2373–2386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fu, X., B. Wang, T. Li, and J. P. McCreary (2003) Coupling between northward propagating intraseasonal oscillations and sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 1733–1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giese, B. S. and D. E. Harison (1991) Eastern equatorial Pacific response to three composite westerly wind types. J. Geophys. Res.
(suppl.), 3239–3248.Google Scholar
Godfrey, J. S., R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, and R. Weller (1998) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE): An interim report. J. Geophys. Res.
, 14395–14450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gualdi, S., A. Navarra, and G. Tinarelli (1999) The interannual variability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in an ensemble of GCM simulations. Climate Dyn.
, 643–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutzler, D. S. (1991) Interannual fluctuations of intraseasonal variance of near-equatorial zonal winds. J. Geophys. Res.
, 3173–3185.Google Scholar
Gutzler, D. S., G. N. Kiladis, G. A. Meehl, K. M. Weickmann, and M. Wheeler (1994) The global climate of December 1992–February 1993. Part II: Large-scale variability across the tropical western Pacific during TOGA COARE. J. Climate
, 1606–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrison, D. E. and G. A. Vecchi (2001) January 1999 Indian Ocean cooling event. Geophys. Res. Lett.
, 3717–3720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendon, H. H. (2000) Impact of air-sea coupling on the Madden-Julian oscillation in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 3939–3952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendon, H. H., C. Zhang, and J. D. Glick (1999) Interannual variability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation during austral summer. J. Climate.
, 2538–2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendon, H. H., B. Leibmann, and J. Glick (1998) Oceanic Kelvin waves and Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 88–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendon, H. H., and J. Glick (1997) Intraseasonal air-sea interaction in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. J. Climate
, 647–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendon, H. H. and B. Liebmann (1994) Organization of convection within the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res.
, 8073–8083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendon, H. H. and M. L. Salby (1994) The life cycle of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2225–2237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jiang, X., T. Li, and B. Wang (2004) Strutures and mechanisms of the northward propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation. J. Climate
, 1022–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, C., D. E. Waliser, and C. Gautier (1998) The influence of the Madden-Julian oscillation on ocean surface heat fluxes and sea surface temperature. J. Climate
, 1057–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemball-Cook, S., B. Wang, and X. Fu (2002) Simulation of the intraseasonal oscillation in ECHAM-4 model: The impact of coupling with an ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 1433–1453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemball-Cook, S. and B. Wang (2001) Equatorial waves and air-sea interaction in the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation. J. Climate
, 2923–2942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessler, W.S. (2001) EOF representations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and its connection with ENSO. J. Climate
, 3055–3061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessler, W. S. and R. Kleeman (2000) Rectification of the Madden-Julian Oscillation into the ENSO cycle. J. Climate
, 3560–3575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessler, W. S., M. J. McPhaden, and K. M. Weickmann (1995) Forcing of intraseasonal Kelvin waves in the equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res.
, 10613–10631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krishnamurti, T. N., D. K. Oosterhof, and A. V. Metha (1988) Air-sea interaction on the timescale of 30–50 days. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 1304–1322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lau, K. M. and C.-H. Sui (1997) Mechanisms of short-term sea surface temperature regulation: Observations from TOGA COARE. J. Climate
, 465–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawrence, D. M. and P. J. Webster (2002) The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation: Relationship between northward and eastward movement of convection. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 1593–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, T. and B. Wang (1994) The influence of sea surface temperature on the tropical intraseasonal oscillation: A numerical study. Mon. Wea. Rev.
, 2349–2362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, J. W.-B., J. D. Neelin, and N. Zeng (2000) Maintenance of tropical intraseasonal variability: Impact of evaporation-wind feedback and midlatitude storms. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2793–2823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loschnigg, J. and P. J. Webster (2000) A coupled-atmosphere system of SST modulation for the Indian Ocean. J. Climate
, 3342–3360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lukas, R., and E. Lindstrom (1991) The mixed layer of the western equatorial Pacific ocean. J. Geophys. Res.
(suppl.), 3343–3357.Google Scholar
Maes, C., P. Delecluse, and G. Madec (1998) Impact of westerly wind bursts on the warm pool of the TOGA COARE domain in an OGCM. Climate Dyn.
, 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maloney, E. D. and J. T. Kiehl (2002) MJO-related SST variations over the tropical Eastern Pacific during Northern Hemisphere summer. J. Climate
, 675–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McPhaden, M. J. (2002) Mixed layer temperature balance on intraseasonal timescales in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Climate
, 2632–2647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McPhaden, M. J., H. P. Fretiag, S. P. Hayes, B. A. Taft, Z. Chen, and K. Wyrtki (1988) The response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to a westerly wind burst in May 1986. J. Geophys., Res.
, 10589–10603.Google Scholar
Neelin, J. D., I. M. Held, and K. H. Cook (1987) Evaporation-wind feedback and low-frequency variability in the tropical atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2341–2348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ralph, E. A., K. Bi, and P. P. Niiler (1997) A Lagrangian description of the western equatorial Pacific response to the wind burst of December 1992. J. Climate
, 1706–1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raymond, D. J. (2001) A new model of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2807–2819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, R. W. and T. M. Smith (1994) Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Climate
, 929–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salby, M. L. and H. H. Hendon (1994) Intraseasonal behavior of clouds, temperature, and winds in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2207–2224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salby, M. L., G. Rolando, and H. H. Hendon (1994) Planetary-scale circulations in the presence of climatological and wave-induced heating. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2344–2367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sengupta, D. and M. Ravichandran (2001) Oscillations of Bay of Bengal sea surface temperature during the 1998 summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Letter
, 2033–2036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schiller, A. and J. S. Godfrey (2003) Indian Ocean intraseasonal variability in an ocean general circulation model. J. Climate
, 21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shinoda, T. and H. H. Hendon (2002) Rectified wind forcing and latent heat flux produced by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Climate
, 3500–3508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shinoda, T. and H. H. Hendon (2001) Upper-ocean heat budget in response to the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Climate
, 4147–4165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shinoda, T. and H. H. Hendon (1998) Mixed layer modeling of intraseasonal variability in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans. J. Climate
, 2668–2685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shinoda, T., H. H. Hendon, and J. Glick (1998) Intraseasonal variability of surface fluxes and sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans. J. Climate
, 1685–1702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sikka, D. R. and S. Gadgil (1980) On the maximum cloud zone and the ITCZ over Indian longitudes during the southwest monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev.
, 1840–1853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slingo, J. M., D. P. Rowell, K. R. Sperber, and F. Nortley (1999) On the predictability of the interannual behaviour of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and its relationship to El Niño. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.
, 583–609.Google Scholar
Sprintall, J. and M. Tomczak (1992) Evidence of the barrier layer in the surface layer of the tropics. J. Geophys. Res.
, 7305–7316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vecchi, G. A., and D. E. Harrison (2002) Monsoon breaks and subseasonal sea surface temperature variability in the Bay of Bengal. J. Climate
, 1485–1493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waliser, D. E., Z. Zhang, K. M. Lau, and J.-H. Kim (2001) Interannual sea surface temperature variability and the predictability of tropical intraseasonal variability. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2596–2615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waliser, D. E., K.-M. Lau, and J. H. Kim (1999) The influence of coupled sea surface temperatures on the Madden-Julian Oscillation: A model perturbation experiment. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 333–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, B. and H. Rui (1990) Synoptic climatology of transient tropical intraseasonal convection anomalies: 1975–1985. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.
, 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, B. and X. Xie (1998) Coupled modes of the warm pool climate system. Part I: The role of air-sea interaction in maintaining Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Climate
, 2116–2135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, P. J., E. F. Bradley, C. W. Fairall, J. S. Godfrey, P. Hacker, R. A. Houze, R. Lukas, Y. Serra, J. M. Hummon, T. D. M. Lawrence, et al.
(2002) The JASMINE pilot study. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.
, 1603–1630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, P. J. and R. Lukas (1992) TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.
, 1377–1416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weller, R. A. and S. P. Anderson (1996) Surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes in the western equatorial Pacific warm pool during the TOGA coupled ocean-atmosphere response experiment. J. Climate
, 1959–1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woolnough, S. J., J. M. Slingo, and B. J. Hoskins (2000) The relationship between convection and sea surface temperature on intraseasonal timescales. J. Climate
, 2086–2104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoshida, K. (1959) A theory of the Cromwell current and of the equatorial upwelling-An interpretation in a similarity to a coastal circulation. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jap.
, 159–170.Google Scholar
Zhang, C. (2001) Intraseasonal perturbations in sea surface temperatures of the equatorial eastern Pacific and their association with the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Climate
, 1309–1322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, C. (1997) Intraseasonal variability of the upper-ocean thermal structure observed at 0° and 165°E. J. Climate
, 3077–3092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, C. (1996) Atmospheric intraseasonal variability at the surface in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 739–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, C. and S. P. Anderson (2003) Sensitivity of intraseasonal perturbations in SST to the structure of the MJO. J. Atmos. Sci.
, 2196–2207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, C. and J. Gottschalck (2002) SST anomalies of ENSO and the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the equatorial Pacific. J. Climate
, 2429–2445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, C. and M. J. McPhaden (2000) Intraseasonal surface cooling in the equatorial western Pacific. J. Climate
, 2261–2276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
© Praxis. Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2005