Epidemiological Studies

  • Heiko Becher
  • Gael Hammer
  • Gisela Kynast-Wolf
  • Bocar Kouyaté
  • Florent Some

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. The World Health Report 1999—Making a Difference. Geneva, 1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benzler J, Sauerborn R. Rapid risk household screening by neonatal arm circumference. Results from a cohort study in Burkina Faso. Trop Med Int Health 1998;3:962–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hertz-Piciotto I. Environmental epidemiology. In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S (eds). Modern Epidemiology, 2nd Edn. Lippincott-Raven, 1998, pp.555–84.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hjalmars U, Kulldorff M, Gustafsson G, Nagarwalla N. Childhood leukemia in Sweden: Using GIS and a spatial scan statistic for cluster detection. Stat Med 1996;15:707–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Britton T. Tests to detect clustering of infected individuals within families. Biometrics 1997;53:98–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kulldorff M, Athas WF, Feuer EJ, Miller BA, Key CR. Evaluating luster alarms: a space-time scan statistic and brain cancer in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Am J Public Health 1998;88:1377–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kulldorff M. Statistical evaluation of disease cluster alarms. In: Lawson AB et al. (eds). Disease Mapping and Risk Assessment for Public Health. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1999.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kulldorff M. A spatial scan statistic. Communications in Statistics—Theory and Methods 1997;26:1481–96.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Müller O, Becher H, Baltussen A et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria morbidity in Westafrican children: A randomized doubleblind placebo-controlled trial. BMJ (In Press), 2001.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Factbook 2000. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.htmlGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    World Health Organization. Statistics World Health Report 2000. http://www.who.int/whr/2000/en/statistics.htmGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sauerborn R, Berman P, Nougtara A. Age bias, but not gender bias, in the intra-household resource allocation for health care in rural Burkina Faso. Health Transit Rev 1996;6:131–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anker M, Black RE, Coldham C et al. Verbal Autopsy Method for Investigating Causes of Death in Infants and Children. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Estève J, Benhamou E, Raymond L. Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, Vol. IV, Descriptive Epidemiology. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France, 1994.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pickle LW, Mason TJ, Howard N, Hoover RR, Fraumeni JF. Atlas of US Cancer Mortality among Whites: 1950–1980. DHHS Publication No (NIH) 87–2900, 1987.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    dos Santos Silva, I. Cancer Epidemiology: Principles and Methods. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, 1999.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    EGRET Reference Manual, Rev. 4. Cytel Software Corporation, 1997.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kulldorff M, Rand K, Gherman G, Williams G, DeFrancesco D. SatSCan—Software for the Spatial and Space-time Scan Statistics, Version 2.1. Bethesda, Madison: National Cancer Institute, 1998b.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bergane Y, Wall S, Kebede D et al. Establishing an epidemiological field laboratory in rural areas—potentials for public health research and interventions. Ethiop J Health Dev 1999;13:1–47.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jaffar S, Leach A, Greenwood AM et al. Changes in the pattern of infant and childhood mortality in Upper River Division, The Gambia, from 1989 to 1993. Trop Med Int Health 1997;2:28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Müller O, Garenne M. Childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 1999;353:673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Snow RW, et al. Periodicity and space-time clustering of severe childhood malaria on the coast of Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1993;87:386–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

  1. Abdulla S, Armstrong Schellenberg J, Nathan R et al. (2001) Impact on malaria morbidity of a programme supplying insecticide treated nets in children aged under 2 years in Tanzania: community cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 322, 270–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agyepong IA (1992) Malaria: ethnomedical perceptions and practice in an Adangbe farming community and implications for control. Social Science and Medicine 35, 131–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agyepong IA, Aryee B, Dzikunu H & Manderson L (1995) The Malaria Manual. Guidelines for the Rapid Assessment of Social, Economic and Cultural Aspects of Malaria. UNDP/World Bank/ WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, (TDR), Geneva.Google Scholar
  4. Agyepong IA & Manderson L (1999) Mosquito avoidance and bed net use in the Greater Accra region, Ghana. Journal of Biosocial Science 31, 79–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahorlu CK, Dunyo SK, Afari EA, Koram KA & Nkrumah FK (1997) Malaria-related beliefs and behaviour in southern Ghana: implications for treatment, prevention and control. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 488–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aikins MK, Pickering H, Alonso PL et al. (1993) A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bednets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of the Gambia, West Africa. Perceptions of the causes of malaria and of its treatment and prevention in the study area. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine 87(Suppl. 2), 25–30.Google Scholar
  7. Aikins MK, Pickering H & Greenwood BM (1994) Attitudes to malaria, traditional practices and bednets (mosquito nets) as vector control measures: a comparative study in five West African countries. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97, 81–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong JRM et al. (1991) The effect of insecticide-treated bednets on mortality in Gambian children. Lancet 337, 1499–1502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armstrong-Schellenberg J, Abdulla S, Minja H et al. (1999) KINET: a social marketing programme of treated nets and net treatment for malaria control in Tanzania, with evaluation of child health and long-term survival. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine 93, 225–231.Google Scholar
  10. ATLAS.ti (1997) Visual Qualitative Data Analysis, Management and Model Building in Education, Research and Business, Version 4.1. for Windows 95, Scientific Software Development, Berlin (www.atlasti.de).Google Scholar
  11. Binka FM & Adongo P (1997) Acceptability and use of insecticide impregnated bednets in northern Ghana. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 499–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Binka FN, Kubaje A, Adjuik M et al. (1997) Impact of permethrin-impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kassena Nankana district, Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 147–154.Google Scholar
  13. Binka FN, Morris S, Ross DA, Arthur P & Aryeetey ME (1994) Patterns of malaria morbidity and mortality in children in northern Ghana. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88, 381–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Alessandro U, Aikins MK, Langerock P, Bennett S & Greenwood BM (1994) Nationwide survey of bednet use in rural Gambia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 72, 391–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Alessandro U, Olaleye B, McGuire W et al. (1995) Mortality and morbidity from malaria in Gambian children after introduction of an impregnated bednet programme. Lancet 345, 479–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Deming MS, Gayibor A, Murphy K, Jones TS & Karsa T (1989) Home treatment of febrile children with antimalarial drugs in Togo. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 67, 695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Djimde A, Plowe CV, Diop S et al. (1998) Use of antimalarial drugs in Mali: policy versus reality. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59, 376–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ettling M, Steketee RW, Macheso A, Schultz LJ, Nyasulu Y & Chitsulo L (1994) Malaria knowledge, attitudes and practices in Malawi: survey population characteristics. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 45, 57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerhardus A, Kielmann K & Sanou A (2000) The use of research for decision-making in the health sector: the case of ‘shared Care’ in Burkina Faso. In: Lessons in Research to Action and Policy. COHRED, Document, The Council on Health Research for Development, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 19–27.Google Scholar
  20. Guiguemde TR, Dao F, Curtis V et al. (1994) Household expenditure on malaria prevention and treatment for families in the town of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88, 285–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gyapong M, Gyapong JO, Amankwa JA et al. (1996) Introducing insecticide impregnated bednets in area of low bednet usage: an exploratory study in northwest Ghana. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 328–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Habluetzel A, Diallo DA, Esposito F et al. (1997) Do insecticide-treated curtains reduce all-cause child mortality in Burkina Faso? Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 855–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hausmann Muela S, Muela Ribera J & Tanner M (1998) Fake malaria and hidden parasites — the ambiguity of malaria. Anthropology and Medicine 5, 43–61.Google Scholar
  24. Hausmann Muela S, Mushi AK & Muela Ribera J (2000) The paradox of the cost and affordability of traditional and government health services in Tanzania. Health Policy and Planning 15, 296–302.Google Scholar
  25. Kidane G & Morrow RH (2000) Teaching mothers to provide home treatment of malaria in Tigray, Ethiopia: a randomised trial. Lancet 356, 550–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kouyaté B, Traore C, Kielmann K & Mueller O (2000) North and South: bridging the Information gap. Lancet 356, 1034–1035.Google Scholar
  27. Lengeler C (1998) Insecticide treated bednets and curtains for malaria control (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue, 3. Update Software, Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Lines J (1996) Mosquito nets and insecticides for net treatment: a discussion of existing and potential distribution systems in Africa. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 616–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Makemba AM, Winch PJ, Makame VM et al. (1996) Treatment practices for degedege, a locally recognized febrile illness, and implications for strategies to decrease mortality from severe malaria in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 305–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Menon A, Joof D, Rowan KM & Greenwood BM (1988) Maternal administration of chloroquine: an unexplored aspect of malaria control. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91, 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Minja H, Schellenberg JA, Mukasa O et al. (2001) Introducing insecticide-treated nets in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania: the relevance of local knowledge and practice for an Information, Education and Communication (IEC) campaign. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6, 614–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Müller O, Becher H, Baltussen A et al. (2001) Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria morbidity among Westafrican children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. British Medical Journal 322, 1–6.Google Scholar
  33. Müller O, Cham K, Jaffar S & Greenwood BM (1997) The Gambian National Impregnated Bednet Programme: evaluation of the 1994 cost-recovery trial. Social Science and Medicine 44, 1903–1909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Müller O & Garenne M (1999) Childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 353, 673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Nabarro DN & Tayler EM (1998) The ‘Roll Back Malaria’ Campaign. Science 280, 2067–2068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nevill CG, Some E, Mungala V et al. (1996) Insecticide-treated bednets reduce mortality and severe morbidity from malaria among children on the Kenyan coast. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 139–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Nsimba SED, Warsame M, Tomson G, Massale AY & Mbatiya ZA (1999) A household survey of source, availability, and use of antimalarials in a rural area of Tanzania. Drug Information Journal 33, 1025–1032.Google Scholar
  38. Pagnoni F, Convelbo N, Tiendrebeogo J, Cousens S & Esposito F (1997) A community-based programme to provide prompt and adequate treatment of presumptive malaria in children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91, 512–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Procacci PG, Lamizana L, Pietra V, Di Russo C & Rotigliano G (1991) Utilisation de rideaux impregnés de permethrine par les habitants d’une communauté rurale du Burkina Faso. Parassitologia 33, 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Rashed S, Johnson H, Dongier P et al. (1999) Determinants of the permethrin impregnated bednets (PIB) in the Republic of Benin: the role of women in the acquisition and utilisation of PIBs. Social Science and Medicine 49, 993–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ruebush TK, Kern MK, Campbell CC & Oloo AJ (1995) Self-treatment of malaria in a rural area of western Kenya. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 73, 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Sauerborn R, Nougtara A, Hien M & Diesfeld HJ (1996) Seasonal variations of the household costs of illness in Burkina Faso. Social Science and Medicine 43, 281–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Snow RW, Craig M, Deichmann U & Marsh K (1999) Estimating mortality and disability due to malaria among non-pregnant population. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77, 624–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Tarimo DS, Lwihula GK, Minjas JN & Bygbjerg IC (2000) Mothers’ perceptions and knowledge on childhood malaria in the holoendemic Kibaha district, Tanzania: implications for malaria control and the IMCI strategy. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5, 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thera MA, D’Alessandro U, Thiero M et al. (2000) Child malaria treatment practices among mothers in the district of Yanfolila, Sikasso region, Mali. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5, 876–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trape JF (2001) The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64(Suppl.), 12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Van Bortel W, Barutwanayo M, Delacollette C & Coosemans M (1996) Motivation à l’acquisition et à l’utilisation des moustiquaires imprégnées dans une zone à paludisme stable au Burundi. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 71–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Vundule C & Mharakurwa S (1996) Knowledge, practices, and perceptions about malaria in rural communities of Zimbabwe: relevance to malaria control. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 74, 55–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Winch PJ, Makemba AM, Kamazima SR et al. (1994) Seasonal variation in the perceived risk of malaria: implications for the promotion of insecticide-impregnated bed nets. Social Science and Medicine 39, 63–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Winch PJ, Makemba AM, Kamazima SR et al. (1996) Local terminology for febrile illnesses in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania and its impact on the design of a community-based malaria control programme. Social Science and Medicine 42, 1057–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Winch PJ, Makemba AM, Kamazima SR et al. (1997) Social and cultural factors affecting rates of regular retreatment of mosquito nets with insecticide in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 760–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. World Bank (1993) World Development Report: Investing in Health. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  53. World Health Organization (1997) World malaria situation in 1994. Weekly Epidemiological Record 72, 269–276.Google Scholar
  54. Ziba C, Slutsker L, Chitsulo L et al. (1994) Use of malaria prevention measures in Malawian households. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 45, 70–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Zimicki S (1996) Promotion in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Net Gain. A New Method for Preventing Malaria Deaths (eds C Lengeler, J Cattani & D de Savigny) World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 111–148.Google Scholar

References

  1. Anker M, Black RE, Coldham C et al. (1999) A Standard Verbal Autopsy Method for Investigating Causes of Death in Infants and Children. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  2. Baltussen RMPM, Sanon M, Sommerfeld J & Würthwein R (2000) Eliciting Disability Weights Using a Culturally-Adapted Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in Rural Burkina Faso. Discussion Paper 03/2000, SFB 544. University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.Google Scholar
  3. Breslow NE & Day NE (1987) Statistical Methods in Cancer Research. Vol. II. The Design and Analysis of Cohort Studies. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  4. Chandramohan D, Maude GH, Rodrigues LC & Hayes RJ (1998) Verbal autopsies for adult deaths: their development and validation in a multicentre study. Tropical Medicine and International Health 3, 436–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cooper RS, Osotimehin B, Kaufman JS & Forrester T (1998) Disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa: what should we conclude in the absence of data? Lancet 351, 208–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. dos Santos Silva I (1999) Cancer Epidemiology: Principles and Methods. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  7. Estève J, Benhamou E & Raymond L (1994) Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, Vol. IV, Descriptive Epidemiology. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  8. Feachem RG & Jamison DT (1991) Disease and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Garenne M, Kahn K, Tollmann St & Gear J (2000) Causes of death in a rural area of South Africa: an international perspective. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 46, 183–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jaffar S, Leach A, Greenwood AM et al. (1997) Changes in the pattern of infant and childhood mortality in upper river division, The Gambia, from 1989 to 1993. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kulldorff M (1997) A spatial scan statistic. Communications in Statistics — Theory and Methods 26, 1481–1496.Google Scholar
  12. Kynast-Wolf G, Sankoh OA, Stieglbauer G et al. (2001) Mortality in a Rural Region in Sub-Saharan Africa — Results from a Demographic Surveillance System in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Discussion Paper 01/2001, SFB 544, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany (http://www.hyg.uni-heidelberg.de/sfb544/DP_01_2001.pdf).Google Scholar
  13. Royston P & Altman DG (1994) Regression using fractional polynomials of continuous covariables: parsimonious parametric modelling. Applied Statistics 43, 429–467.Google Scholar
  14. Sankoh OA, Ye Y, Sauerborn R, Müller O & Becher H (2001) Clustering of childhood mortality in rural Burkina Faso. International Journal of Epidemiology 30, 485–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. SAS Institute (1997) SAS/STAT Software Changes and Enhancements. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC (SAS/STAT is a submodule of the Statistical Analysis System software package: http://www.sas.com).Google Scholar
  16. Segi M (1960) Cancer Mortality for Selected Sites in 24 Countries (1950–57). Tohoku University School of Public Health, Sendai, Japan.Google Scholar
  17. Würthwein R, Gbangou A, Sauerborn R & Schmidt CM (2001) Measuring the local burden of disease: a study of years of life lost in rural Burkina Faso. International Journal of Epidemiology 30, 501–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Kaufmann JS, Asuzu MC, Rotimi CN, et al. The absence of adult mortality data for sub-Saharan Africa: a practical solution. Bull WHO 1997; 75: 389–395.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adult Morbidity and Mortality Project. Policy implications of adult morbidity and mortality 1997. Dar es salaam: AMMP.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kitange, HM, Machibya, H, Black J, et al. Outlook for survivors of childhood in sub-Saharan Africa: adult mortality in Tanzania. Br Med J 1996; 312: 216–220.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kynast-Wolf G, Sankoh OA, Kouyaté B, Becher H. Mortality patterns 1993–1998 in a rural area of Burkina Faso, West Africa, based on the Nouna Demographic Surveillance System. Trop Med Int Hlth 2002; 7: 349–356.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anker M, Black RE, Coldham C, et al. Verbal autopsy method for investigating causes of death in infants and children. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    dos Santos Silva, I. Cancer epidemiology: principles and methods. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1999.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Breslow NE, Day NE. Statistical methods in cancer research. Vol. II. The design and analysis of cohort studies. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Preston SH, Heuveline P, Guillot M, Guillan M. Demography: measuring and modeling population processes. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sankoh, OA, Ye, Y, Sauerborn, R, Müller, O, Becher, H. Clustering of childhood mortality in rural Burkina Faso. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30: 485–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Setel, PW, Unwin, N, Alberti KGMM, Hemed, Y, for the AMMP Team. Cause-specific adult mortality: evidence from community-based surveillance — selected sites, Tanzania, 1992–1998. Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 2000; 49: 416–419.Google Scholar

References

  1. Ahorlu CK, Dunyo SK, Afari EA, Koram KA & Nkrumah FK (1997) Malaria-related beliefs and behaviour in southern Ghana: implications for treatment, prevention and control. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 488–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baume C, Helitzer D & Kachur SP (2000) Patterns of care for childhood malaria in Zambia. Social Science and Medicine 51, 1491–1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brinkmann U & Brinkmann A (1991) Malaria and health in Africa: the present situation and epidemiological trends. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 42, 204–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dabis F, Breman JG, Roisin AJ, Haba F & The ACSI CCCD Team (1989) Monitoring selective components of primary health care: methodology and community assessment of vaccination, diarrhoea and malaria practices in Conakry, Guinea. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 67, 675–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. De Francisco A, Armstrong-Schellenberg J, Hall AJ, Greenwood AM, Cham K & Greenwood BM (1994) Comparison of mortality between villages with and without Primary Health Care workers in Upper River Division, The Gambia. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97, 69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Deming M, Gayibor A, Murphy K, Jones T & Karsa T (1989) Home treatment of febrile children with antimalarial drugs in Togo. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 67, 695–700.Google Scholar
  7. Dürrheim DN, Frieremans S, Kruger P, Mabuza A & de Bruyn JC (1999) Confidential inquiry into malaria deaths. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77, 263–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Font F, Alonso Gonzales M, Nathan R et al. (2001) Diagnostic accuracy and case management of clinical malaria in the primary health services of a rural area in south-eastern Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6, 423–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garenne M, Kahn K, Tollmann St & Gear J (2000) Causes of death in a rural area of South Africa: an international perspective. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 46, 183–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Greenwood B (1989) Impact of culture and environmental changes on epidemiology and control of malaria and babesiosis: the microepidemiology of malaria and its importance to malaria control. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83(Suppl.), 25–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenwood B, Bradley A, Greenwood A et al. (1987a) Mortality and morbidity from malaria among children in a rural area of The Gambia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 478–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenwood B, Greenwood A, Bradley AK, Tulloch S, Hayes R & Oldfield FSJ (1987b) Deaths in infancy and early childhood in a well-vaccinated, rural, West African population. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 7, 91–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Jaffar S, Leach A, Greenwood AM et al. (1997) Changes in the pattern of infant and childhood mortality in Upper River Division, The Gambia, from 1989 to 1993. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kouyaté B, Traoré C, Kielmann K & Müller O (2000) North and South: bridging the information gap. Lancet 356, 1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Krause G & Sauerborn R (2000) Community-effectiveness of care-the example of malaria treatment in rural Burkina Faso. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 7, 99–106.Google Scholar
  16. Mabeza GF, Moyo VM, Thumas P et al. (1995) Predictors of severity of illness on presentation in children with cerebral malaria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 89, 221–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. McCombie SC (1994) Treatment-Seeking for Malaria: a Review and Suggestions for Future Research. Resource Paper No. 2. (TDR/SER/RP/94.1) WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  18. Molyneux CS, Mung’ala-Odera V, Harpham T & Snow RW (1999) Maternal responses to childhood fevers: a comparison of rural and urban residents in costal Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 4, 836–845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Molyneux ME, Taylor TE, Wirima JJ & Harper G (1989) Clinical features and prognostic indicators in paediatric cerebral malaria: a study of 131 comatose Malawian children. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 71, 441–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Müller O, Becher H, Baltussen A et al. (2001) Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria morbidity among West African children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. British Medical Journal 322, 1567–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Müller O, Boele van Hensbroek M, Jaffar S et al. (1996) A randomized trial of chloroquine, amodiaquine, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine in Gambian children with uncomplicated malaria. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 124–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Müller O, Traoré C & Kouyate B (2003) Clinical efficacy of chloroquine in young children with uncomplicated malaria-a community-based study in rural Burkina Faso. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8, 202–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ndah EA (2001) Risk factors for childhood mortality in a rural area of Burkina Faso. MSc Thesis. Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  24. Nshakira N, Kristensen M, Ssali F & Whyte SR (2002) Appropriate treatment of malaria? Use of antimalarial drugs for children’s fevers in district medical units, drug shops and homes in eastern Uganda. Tropical Medicine and International Health 7, 309–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nsimba SED, Massele AY, Eriksen J, Gustafsson LL, Tomson G & Warsame M (2002) Case management of malaria in under-fives at primary health care facilities in a Tanzanian district. Tropical Medicine and International Health 7, 201–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Okrah J, Traoré C, Palé A, Sommerfeld J & Müller O (2002) Community factors associated with malaria prevention by mosquito nets: an exploratory study in rural Burkina Faso. Tropical Medicine and International Health 7, 240–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Quigley MA, Armstrong Schellenberg JRM & Snow RW (1996) Algorithms for verbal autopsies: a validation study in Kenyan children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 74, 147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Reuben R (1993) Women and malaria-special risks and appropriate control strategy. Social Science and Medicine 37, 473–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rogier C, Ly AB, Tall A, Cissé B & Trapé JF (1999) Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Dielmo, a holoendemic area in Senegal: no influence of acquired immunity on initial symptomatology and severity of malaria attacks. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60, 410–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Rooth I & Björkman A (1992) Fever episodes in a holoendemic malaria area of Tanzania: parasitological and clinical findings and diagnostic aspects related to malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86, 479–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ruebush T, Kern M, Campbell C & Oloo A (1995) Self-treatment of malaria in a rural area of western Kenya. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 73, 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sankoh OA, Ye Y, Sauerborn R, Müller O & Becher H (2001) Clustering of childhood mortality in rural Burkina Faso. International Journal of Epidemiology 30, 485–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Snow RW, Armstrong JRM, Forster D et al. (1992) Childhood deaths in Africa: uses and limitations of verbal autopsies. Lancet 340, 351–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Snow RW, Craig M, Deichmann U & Marsh K (1999) Estimating mortality, morbidity and disability due to malaria among Africa’s non-pregnant population. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77, 624–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Tanner M & Vlassoff C (1998) Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria: a typology based on endemicity and gender. Social Science and Medicine 46, 523–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Théra MA, D’Alessandro U, Thiéro M et al. (2002) Child malaria treatment practices among mothers in the district of Yanfolila, Sikasso region, Mali. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5, 876–881.Google Scholar
  37. Todd JE, de Francisco A, O’Dempsey TJD & Greenwood BM (1994) The limitations of verbal autopsy in a malaria-endemic region. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 14, 31–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Trape J (2001) The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 64(Suppl.), 12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. WHO (1997) World malaria situation in 1994. Weekly Epidemiological Record 72, 269–292.Google Scholar
  40. WHO (2000) Severe falciparum malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94(Suppl.), 1–90.Google Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmad OB, Lopez AD, Inoue M. The decline in child mortality: a reappraisal. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2000;78:1175–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tulloch J. Integrated approach to child health in developing countries. Lancet 1999;354Suppl 2:16–20.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Müller O, Garenne M. Childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 1999;353:673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adetunji J. Trends in under-5 mortality rates and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2000;78:1200–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trape JF. The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2001;64Suppl:12–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cooper RS, Osotimehin B, Kaufman JS, Forrester T. Disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa: What should we conclude in the absence of data? Lancet 1998;351:208–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pickering H, Hayes RJ, Ngandu N, Smith PG. Social and environmental factors associated with the risk of child mortality in a peri-urban community in The Gambia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1986;80:311–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Velema JP, Alihonou EM, Gandaho T, Hounye F. Childhood mortality among users and non-users of primary health care in a rural West African community. International Journal of Epidemiology 1991;20:474–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hill A. Infant and child mortality: levels, trends, and data deficiencies. In: Feachem RG, Jameson DT, editors. Disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blacker JGC. Infant and child mortality: development, environment, and custom. In: Feachem RG, Jameson DT, editors. Disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pison G, Trape JF, Lefebvre M, Enel C. Rapid decline in child mortality in a rural area of Senegal. International Journal of Epidemiology 1993;22:72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Binka FN, Maude GH, Gyapong M, Ross DA, Smith PG. Risk factors for child mortality in northern Ghana: a case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology 1995;24:127–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ronsmans C. Birth spacing and child survival in rural Senegal. International Journal of Epidemiology 1996;25:989–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuate Defo B. Effects of infant feeding practices and birth spacing on infant and child survival: a reassessment from retrospective and prospective data. Journal of Biosocial Sciences 1997;29:303–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jaffar S, Leach A, Greenwood AM, Jepson A, Müller O, Ota MO, et al. Changes in the pattern of infant and childhood mortality in upper river division, The Gambia, from 1989 to 1993. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1997;2:28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hill AG, MacLeod WB, Sonko SS, Walraven G. Improvements in childhood mortality in The Gambia. Lancet 1998;352:1909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leach A, McArdle TF, Banya WA, Krubally O, Greenwood AM, Rands C, et al. Neonatal mortality in a rural area of The Gambia. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1999;19:33–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garenne M, Kahn K, Tollmann S, Gear J. Causes of death in a rural area of South Africa: An international perspective. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2000;46:183–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Justesen A, Kunst A. Postneonatal and child mortality among twins in Southern Eastern Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology 2000;29:678–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rutstein SO. Factors assodated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s. Bulletin of World Health Organization 2000;78:1256–70.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yé Y, Sanou A, Gbangou A, Kouyaté B. Nouna Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso. In: INDEPTH, editor. Health and demography in developing countries, Vol. 1: Population, health and survival in INDEPTH Sites. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC/CRDI; 2001.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie. Enquête Démographique et de Santé, Burkina Faso 1998–1999. Calverton (MA): Macro International.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kouyate B, Traore C, Kielmann K, Müller O. North and South: bridging the Information gap. Lancet 2000;356:1034–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sankoh OA, Ye Y, Sauerborn, R Müller O, Becher H. Clustering of Childhood Mortality in Rural Burkina Faso. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001;30:485–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Müller O, Becher H, Baltussen A, Ye Y, Diallo A, Konate AT, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria morbidity among West African children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322:1–6.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kynast-Wolf G, Sankoh OA, Kouyaté B, Becher H. Mortality patterns 1993–1998 in a rural areal of Burkina Faso, West Africa, based on the Nouna Demographic Surveillance System. Tropical Mediane and International Health 2002;7:349–56.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Klein JP, Moeschberger ML. Survival analysis. New York (NY): Springer; 1997.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Valsecchi MG, Silvestri D, Sasieni P. Evaluation of long-term survival: use of diagnostics and robust estimators with Cox’s proportional hazards model. Statistics in Mediane 1996;15:2763–80.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    SAS/STAT Software changes & enhancements. Cary (NC): SAS Institute; 1997.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ouoba P. Mortality of children under five years of age. [Mortalité des enfants de moins de cinc ans]. In: Enquete Demographique et de Sante, Burkina Faso. Calverton (MD): Demographic Health Surveys; 1998:135–44. In French. Available from: URL: http://www.measuredhs.com/start.cfmGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gyimah SO. Ethnicity and infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Ghana. Discussion Paper No. 02-10. London, Canada, University of Western Ontario: Population Studies Centre; 2002. Available from: URL: http:www.ssc.uwo.ca/sociology/popstudies/dp/dp02-10.pdfGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mboup G. Mortality of children under five years of age. [Mortalité des enfants de moins de cinc ans. In: Republique du Benin Enquete Demographique et de Sante, Benin. Calverton (MD): Demographic Health Surveys; 2001:115–24. Available from: URL: http://www.measuredhs.com/start.cfmGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Müller O, Traoré C, Kouyaté B. Clinical efficacy of chloroquine in young children with uncomplicated malaria — a community based study in rural Burkina Faso. Tropical Mediane and International Health 2003;8:202–3.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koblinsky MA, Tinker A, Daly P. Programming for safe motherhood: a guide to action, Health Policy and Planning 1994;9:252–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mother-baby package: implementing safe motherhood in countries. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Quinn TC. Global burden of the HIV pandemic. Lancet 1996;348:99–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    CIA. The World Factbook 2002. Available from: URL: http://www.worldfactsnow.com/factbook/country/Burkina_Faso/Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Center of Disease Control. National Vital Statistics Report 2001;49:41. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/pdf/nvsr49_01t13.pdfGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Moore SE, Cole TJ, Poskitt EM, Sonko BJ, Whitehead RG, McGregor IA, et al. Season of birth predicts mortality in rural Gambia. Nature 1997;388:434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jaffar S, Leach A, Greenwood A, Greenwood B. Season of birth is not associated with delayed childhood mortality in Upper River Division, The Gambia. Tropical Mediane and International Health 2000;5:628–32.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hook EB, Regal RR. Recommendations for presentation and evaluation of capture-recapture estimates in epidemiology. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1999;52:917–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jaffar S, Leach A, Greenwood A, Greenwood B. Season of birth is not associated with delayed childhood mortality in Upper River Division, The Gambia. Tropical Mediane and International Health 2000;5:628–32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heiko Becher
    • 1
  • Gael Hammer
    • 1
  • Gisela Kynast-Wolf
    • 1
  • Bocar Kouyaté
    • 2
  • Florent Some
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public HealthUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Centre de Recherche en Santé de NounaNounaBurkina Faso

Personalised recommendations