Glacial Retreat and its Influence on Migration of Mitochondrial Genes in the Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in Western North America

  • Mark D. Thompson
  • Anthony P. Russell


The long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) is a widespread inhabitant of the Cordilleran Region of western North America. The Cordilleran ice sheet retreated when climates changed at the end of the Pleistocene. This setting provides a natural experiment for phylogeographic tests of post-glacial migration. As migration occurs, the demographics of populations change; these changes are imprinted into the gene frequencies of descendant populations. Species ranges shifted as migrants inhabited tolerable post-glacial environments, and new genealogical mixtures formed as populations came into secondary contact. Historical climate, ecology, and geography impacted the range dynamics and consequent population genetics of the long-toed salamander. This systematic study of mitochondrial DNA tests biogeographic patterns using phylogenetic trees, nested phylogeographic clade analysis, and mismatch distributions. Phylogenetic congruence is tested first in a partitioned versus an intersected arrangement of two mitochondrial loci, including 95 cytochrome b and 103 intergenic spacer sequences. Nested phylogeographic clade analysis provides an explicit system to correlate lineages and their mismatch distributions. Although mismatch distributions operate ideally in high-migration species, and the long-toed salamander migrates little among contemporary populations, there is reason to suspect that waif dispersal increased with changes in fluvial dynamics following glacial retreat. Clade patterns support a deep vicariance across the central interior and reveal seven Pleistocene refugia. Waves in mismatch distributions indicate that population sizes increased in lineages residing in refugia near the ice margins at this time. The phylogenetic identities that spread away from refugia and their genetic patterns are placed into a historical pre- and post-glaciated context.

Key words

biogeography glaciation long-toed salamander mitochondrial genes phylogenetics phylogeography western North American Cordillera 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alford R, Richards S (1999) Global amphibian declines: A problem in applied ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 133–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alt D, Hyndman D (1995) Northwest Exposures: A Geological Story of the North West. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, MontanaGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson PK (1960) Ecology and evolution in Island populations of salamanders in the San Francisco Bay region. Ecological Monographs 30: 359–385Google Scholar
  4. Anderson J, Graham R (1967) Vertical migration and stratification of larval Ambystoma. Copeia 1967: 371–374Google Scholar
  5. Anderson (2004) Postglacial population history of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in Fennoscandia. Molecular studies of recolonisation, sex-biased gene flow and the formation of chromosome races. Acta Universitatis Uppsaliensis. Comprehensive summaries of Uppsala dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology. 986. 56 pp. Uppsala, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  6. Arbogast B, Kenagy G (2001) Comparative phylogeography as an integrative approach to historical biogeography. Journal of Biogeography 28: 819–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avise J (1994) Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Avise J (1996a) Introduction: The scope of conservation genetics. In Avise J, Hamrick J (eds) Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY 1–9Google Scholar
  9. Avise J (1996b) Towards a regional conservation genetics perspective: Phylogeography of faunas in the southeastern United States. In Avise J, Hamrick J (eds) Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY 431–470Google Scholar
  10. Avise JC (2000) Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  11. Avise J, Ball R, Arnold J (1988) Current versus historical population sizes in vertebrate species with high gene flow: A comparison based on mitochondrial DNA lineages and inbreeding theory for neutral mutations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 5: 331–344Google Scholar
  12. Baily, J (1948) Supplementary observations on the geographic variation of Ambystoma macrodactylum. Herpetologica 4: 171–174Google Scholar
  13. Baker V (1983) Late-Pleistocene fluvial systems. In Porter SC (ed) Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 115–129Google Scholar
  14. Ballard JWO, Whitlock MC (2004) The incomplete natural history of mitochondria. Molecular Ecology 13: 729–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beneski J, Zalisko E, Larsen J (1986) Demography and migratory patterns of the eastern long-toed salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum. Copeia 1986: 398–408Google Scholar
  16. Benkman C, Holimon W, Smith J (2001) The influence of a competitor on the geographic mosaic of coevolution between crossbills and lodgepole pine. Evolution 55: 282–294Google Scholar
  17. Bermingham E, Moritz C (1998) Comparative phylogeography: Concepts and applications. Molecular Ecology 7: 367–369Google Scholar
  18. Berven K, Gill D, Smith-Gill S (1979) Counter gradient selection in the green frog, Rana clamitans. Evolution 33: 609–623Google Scholar
  19. Branco M, Monnerot M, Ferrand N, Templeton AR (2002) Postglacial dispersal of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on the Iberian peninsula reconstructed from nested clade and mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA genetic variation. Evolution 56: 792–803Google Scholar
  20. Brodie E, Ridenhour B, Brodie E (2002) The evolutionary response of predators to dangerous prey: Hotspots and coldspots in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between garter snakes and newts. Evolution 56: 2067–2082Google Scholar
  21. Brosou-Aris S, Excoffier L (1996) The impact of population expansion and mutation rate heterogeneity on DNA sequence polymorphism. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13: 494–504Google Scholar
  22. Brunsfeld S, Sullivan J, Soltis D, Soltis P (2001) Comparative phylogeography of north-western North America: A synthesis. In Silverton J, Antonovics J (eds) Integrating Ecology and Evolution in a Spatial Context. Fourteenth Special Symposium of the British Ecological Society. British Ecological Society, Blackwell Science Ltd. 319–339Google Scholar
  23. Bury R, Pearl C (1999) Klamath-siskiyou herpetofauna: Biogeographic patterns and conservation strategies. Natural Areas Journal 19: 341–350Google Scholar
  24. Byun A, Koop B, Reimchen T (1997) North American black bear mtDNA phylogeography: Implications for morphology and the Haida Gwaii glacial refugium controversy. Evolution 51: 1647–1653Google Scholar
  25. Carson H, Templeton A (1984) Genetic revolutions in relation to speciation phenomena: The founding of new populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15: 97–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Castelloe J, Templeton A (1994) Root probabilities for intraspecific gene trees under neutral coalescent theory. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 3: 102–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Church SA, Kraus JM, Mitchell JC, Church DR, Taylor DR (2003) Evidence for multiple Pleistocene refugia in the postglacial expansion of the eastern tiger salamander, Ambystom tigrinum tigrinum. Evolution 57: 372–383Google Scholar
  28. Clague J, James T (2002) History and isostatic effects of the last ice sheet in southern British Columbia. Quaternary Science Reviews 21: 71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clayton D (1984) Transcription of the mammalian mitochondrial genome. Annual Review of Biochemistry 53: 573–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Conroy C, Cook A (2000) Phylogeography of a post-glacial colonizer: Microtus longicaudus (Rodentia: Muridae). Molecular Ecology 9: 165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cox A, Hebert P (2001) Colonization, extinction, and phylogeographic patterning in a freshwater crustacean. Molecular Ecology 10: 371–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Crandall, KA (1994) Intraspecific cladogram estimation: Accuracy at higher levels of divergence. Systematic Biology 43: 222–235Google Scholar
  33. Crandall KA (1996) Multiple interspecies transmissions of human and simian T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13: 115–131Google Scholar
  34. Crandall KA, Templeton AR (1993) Empirical tests of some predictions from coalescent theory with applications to intra-specific phylogeny reconstruction. Genetics 134: 959–969Google Scholar
  35. Crandall KA, Templeton AR (1996) Applications of intraspecific phylogenetics. In Harvey PH, Brown AJL, Smith JM, Nee S (eds) New Uses for New Phylogenies, Oxford University Press, Oxford 81–99Google Scholar
  36. Cruzan MB, Templeton AR (2000) Paleoecology and coalescence: phylogeographic analysis of hypotheses from the fossil record. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 491–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Darlington PJ (1957) Zoogeography. JC Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  38. DaSilva M, Patton J (1998) Molecular phylogeography and the evolution and conservation of Amazonian mammals. Molecular Ecology 7: 475–486Google Scholar
  39. Daubenmire R (1975) Floristic plant geography of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Journal of Biogeography 2: 1–18Google Scholar
  40. Demboski J, Cook J (2001) Phylogeography of the dusky shrew, Sorex monticolus (Insectivora:Soricidae): Insight into deep and shallow history in northwestern North America. Molecular Ecology 10: 1227–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Demboski J, Stone K, Cook J (1999) Further perspectives on the Haida Gwaii glacial refugium. Evolution 53: 2008–2012Google Scholar
  42. Donovan M, Semlitsch R, Routman E (2000) Biogeography of the southeastern United States: A comparison of salamander phylogeographic studies. Evolution 54: 1449–1456Google Scholar
  43. Duellman WE, Sweet SS (1999) Distribution patterns of amphibians in the neararctic region of North America. In Duellman WE (ed), Patterns and Distribution of Amphibians: A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London 31–109Google Scholar
  44. Duellman WE, Trueb L (1986) Biology of Amphibians. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  45. Dynesius M, Jansson R (2000) Evolutionary consequences of changes in species’ geographical distributions driven by milankovitch climate oscillations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 9115–9120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Endler J (1977) Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Clines. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  47. Excoffier L (2004) Patterns of DNA sequence diversity and genetic structure after a range expansion: lessons from the infinite-island model. Molecular Ecology 13: 853–864Google Scholar
  48. Farris J, Källersjö M, Kluge A, Bult C (1994) Testing significance of incongruence. Cladistics 10: 315–319Google Scholar
  49. Felsenstein J (1983) Parsimony in systematics: Biological and statistical issues. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 14: 313–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ferguson DE (1961) The geographic variation of Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, with the description of two new subspecies. The American Midland Naturalist 65: 311–338Google Scholar
  51. Fisher R, Shaffer H (1996) The decline of amphibians in California’s great central valley. Conservation Biology 10: 1387–1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fu YX (1997) Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection. Genetics 147: 915–925Google Scholar
  53. Fukumoto J, Herrero S (1998) Observations of the long-toed salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum, in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 112: 579–585Google Scholar
  54. Funk W, Tallmon D, Allendorf F (1999) Small effective population size in the long-toed salamander. Molecular Ecology 8: 1633–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. García-Parìs M, Alcobendas M, Buckley D, Wake D (2003) Dispersal of viviparity across contact zones in Iberian populations of fire salamanders (Salamandra) inferred from discordance of genetic and morphological traits. Evolution 57: 129–143Google Scholar
  56. Good J, Sullivan J (2001) Phylogeography of the red-tailed chipmunk (Tamias ruficaudus), a northern Rocky Mountain endemic. Molecular Ecology 10: 2683–2695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gould S, Johnston R (1972) Geographic variation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 3: 457–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gould S, Vrba E (1982) Exaptation — a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8: 4–15Google Scholar
  59. Graham KL, Powell GL (1999) Status of the long-toed salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum in Alberta. Alberta Wildlife Status Report No. 22, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  60. Green D, Campbell R (1984) The Amphibians of British Columbia. Handbook No. 45. Royal British Columbia Museum, Vancouver, British Columbia.Google Scholar
  61. Green D, Sharbel T, Kearsley J, Kaiser H (1996) Postglacial range fluctuation, genetic subdivision and speciation in Western North American Spotted Frog complex, Rand pretiosa. Evolution 50: 374–390Google Scholar
  62. Hamilton IM, Graham L, Powell GL, Russell AP (1996) The range of long-toed salamanders in Northwestern Alberta. Alberta Environmental Protection, Fish and Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  63. Hewitt G (1999) Post-glacial recolonization of European biota. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68: 87–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hewitt G, Ibrahim K (2001) Inferring glacial refugia and historical immigrations with molecular phylogenies. In Silverton J, Antonovics J (eds), Integrating Ecology and Evolution in a Spatial Context. Fourteenth Special Symposium of the British Ecological Society. British Ecological Society, Blackwell Science Ltd. 271–294Google Scholar
  65. Hennig W (1966) Phylogenetic Systematics. University of Illinois Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  66. Heusser C (1983) Vegetational history of the Northwestern United States, including Alaska. In Porter SC (ed), Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 239–258Google Scholar
  67. Hillis DM, Bull JD (1993) An empirical test of bootstrapping as a method for assessing confidence in phylogenetic analysis. Systematic Biology 42: 182–192Google Scholar
  68. Hipp AL, Hall HC, Systma KJ (2004) Congruence versus phylogenetic accuracy: revisiting the incongruent length difference test. Systematic Biology 53: 81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hodge R (1976) Amphibians and Reptiles in Alaska, The Yukon and Northwest Territories. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, AlaskaGoogle Scholar
  70. Houlahan J, Findlay C, Schmidt B, Meyer A, Kuzmin S (2000) Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature 404: 752–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Howard J, Wallace R (1981) Microgeographical variation of electrophoretic loci in populations of Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Copeia 1981: 466–471Google Scholar
  72. Howard J. Wallace R (1983) Critical thermal maxima in populations of Ambystoma macrodactylum from different elevations. Journal of Herpetology 173: 400–402Google Scholar
  73. Howard J, Wallace R (1984) Life history characteristics of populations of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) from different altitudes. The American Midland Naturalist 113: 361–373Google Scholar
  74. Hudson R (1989) How often are polymorphic restriction sites due to a single mutation? Theoretical Population Biology 36: 23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Janzen F, Krenz J, Haselkorn T, Brodie E Jr, Brodie E III (2002) Molecular phylogeography of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) in western North America: Implications for regional historical forces. Molecular Ecology 11: 1739–1751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jarrett R, Malde H (1987) Paleodischarge of the late Pleistocene Bonneville flood, Snake River, Idaho, computed from new evidence. Geological Society of America Bulletin 99: 127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jockusch E, Wake D (2002) Falling apart and merging: Diversification of slender salamanders (plethodontidae: Batrachoseps) in the American West. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 76: 361–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Johnson N, Marten J (1989) Evolutionary genetics of flycatchers. III. Variation in Epidonax hammondii (Aves: Tyrannidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 232–238Google Scholar
  79. Josenhans H, Fedje D, Conway K, Barrie J (1995) Post-glacial sea levels on the western Canadian continental shelf: Evidence for rapid change, extensive subaerial exposure, and early human habitation. Marine Geology 125: 73–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kezer J, Farner D (1985) Life history patterns of the salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum in the high Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon. Copeia 1955: 127–131Google Scholar
  81. Knowles L (2001) Did the Pleistocene glaciations promote divergence? Tests of explicit refugial models in montane grasshoppers. Molecular Ecology 10: 691–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kumar S, Tamura K, Jakobsen I, Nei M (2001) MEGA2: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Bioinformatics 17 1244–1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. MacArthur R, Connell J (1967) The Biology of Populations. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Mandryk C, Josenhans H, Fedge D, Mathewes R (2001) Late Quaternary paleoenvironments of northwestern North America: Implications for inland versus coastal migration routes. Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Marnell LF (1997) Herpetofauna of Glacier National Park. Northwestern Naturalist 78: 17–33Google Scholar
  86. McKnight ML, Shaffer HB (1997) Large, rapidly evolving intergenic spacers in the mitochondrial DNA of the salamander family Ambystomatidae (Amphibia: Caudata). Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 1167–1176Google Scholar
  87. Meyer G, Leidecker M (1999) Fluvial terraces along the middle fork Salmon river, Idaho, and their relation to glaciation, landslide dams, and incision rates: A preliminary analysis and river-mile guide. In Hughes S, Thackray G (eds) Guidebook to the Geology of Eastern Idaho. Idaho Museum of Natural History, Pocatello 219–335Google Scholar
  88. Milner AR (1983) The biogeography of salamanders in the Mesozoic and early Caenozoic: A cladistic-vicariance model. In Sims RW, Price JH, Whalley PES (eds) Evolution, Time and Space: The Emergence of the Biosphere. Academic Press, London 431–468Google Scholar
  89. Moore WS (1995) Inferring phylogenies from mtDNA variation: Mitochondrialgene trees versus nuclear-gene trees. Evolution 49: 718–726Google Scholar
  90. Moritz C, Schneider CJ, Wake DB (1992) Evolutionary relationships within the Ensatina eschscholtzii complex confirm the ring species interpretation. Systematic Biology 41: 273–291Google Scholar
  91. Nelson SJ, Powell GL, Russell AP (1995) Population survey of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in southwestern Alberta. Alberta Environmental Protection, Fish and Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  92. Nielson M, Lohman K, Sullivan J (2001) Phylogeography of the Tailed Frog (Ascaphus truei): Implications for the Biogeography of the Pacific Northwest. Evolution 55: 147–160Google Scholar
  93. Nussbaum R, Bordie E, Storm R (1983) Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, IdahoGoogle Scholar
  94. Ohta T (1992) The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 263–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. O’Reilly P, Reimchen T, Beech R, Strobeck C (1993) Mitochondrial DNA in Gasterosteus and a Pleistocene glacial refugium on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Evolution 47: 678–684Google Scholar
  96. Oseen K, Powell GL, Russell AP (1995a) The distribution of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in southwestern Alberta. Alberta Environmental Protection, Fish and Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  97. Oseen K, Powell GL, Russell AP (1995b) The distribution of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in southwestern Alberta. Alberta Environmental Protection, Fish and Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  98. Pauken R, Metter D (1971) Geographic representation of morphologic variation among populations of Ascaphus truei Stejneger. Systematic Zoology 20: 434–441Google Scholar
  99. Petranka J (1998) Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  100. Pielou E (1991) After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  101. Posada D, Crandall KA (1998) MODELTEST: Testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14: 817–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Posada D, Crandall KA, Templeton AR (2000) GeoDis: A program for the cladistic nested analysis of the geographical distribution of genetic haplotypes. Molecular Ecology 9: 487–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Posada D, Crandall KA (2001) Intraspecific gene genealogies: Trees grafting into networks. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Powell G, Oseen K, Russell A (1996) Volunteer amphibian monitoring in Alberta 1992–1994: The results of the pilot project. Alberta Environmental Protection, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  105. Powell G, Russell AP (1996) The long-toed salamander in the Bow corridor: A preliminary report. Alberta Environmental Protection, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  106. Powell G, Russell A, James J, Nelson S, Watson S (1997a) Population biology of the long-toed salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum, in the front range of Alberta. In Green D (ed) Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles 37–44Google Scholar
  107. Powell GL, Russell AP, Nelson SJ, Hamilton IM, Graham KL (1997b) The status of the long-toed salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum in Alberta. Alberta Environmental Protection, Fish and Wildlife Service, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  108. Ray N, Currat M, Excoffier L (2003) Intra-deme molecular diversity in spatially expanding populations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20: 76–86Google Scholar
  109. Richardson B, Brunsfeld S, Klopfenstein N (2002) DNA from bird-dispersed seed and wind-disseminated pollen provides insights into postglacial colonization and population genetic structure of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). Molecular Ecology 11: 215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rogers AR (1995) Genetic evidence for a Pleistocene population explosion. Evolution 49: 608–615Google Scholar
  111. Rogers AR, Harpending H (1992) Population growth makes waves in the distribution of pairwise genetic differences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 9: 552–569Google Scholar
  112. Russell R, Anderson J (1956) A disjunct population of the long-toed salamander from the coast of California. Herpetologica 12: 137–140Google Scholar
  113. Russell A, Powell G, Hall D (1996) Growth and age of Alberta long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum krausai): A comparison of two methods of estimation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 74: 397–412Google Scholar
  114. Schneider C, Cunningham M, Moritz C (1998) Comparative phylogeography and the history of endemic vertebrates in the wet tropic rainforests of Australia. Molecular Ecology 7: 487–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schneider S, Roessli D, Excoffier L (2000) ARLEQUIN. Version. 2.000: A Software for Population Genetics Data Analysis. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  116. Sheppard R (1977) The ecology and home range movements of Ambystoma macrodactylum krausei (Amphibia: Urodela). Master’s thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  117. Soltis D, Gitzendanner M, Strenge D, Soltis P (1997) Chloroplast DNA intraspecific phylogeography of plants from the pacific northwest of North America. Plant Systematics and Evolution 206: 353–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stebbins R (1951) Amphibians of Western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  119. Stebbins R (2003) Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  120. Stone K, Cook J (2000) Phylogeography of black bears (Ursus americanus) of the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 1218–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stone K, Flynn R, Cook J (2002) Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae). Molecular Ecology 11: 2049–2063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Swofford DL (2000) PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (and Other Methods) Version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  123. Tajima F (1989) Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics 123: 585–595Google Scholar
  124. Tallmon DA, Funk WC, Dunlap WW, Allendorf FW (2000) Genetic differentiation among long-toed salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum populations. Copeia 2000: 27–35Google Scholar
  125. Tan A, Wake DB (1995) MtDNA phylogeography of the California newt, Taricha torosa (Caudata, Salamandridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4: 383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Taylor D (1985) Evolution of freshwater drainages and molluscs in western North America: Interdisciplinary studies of the Clarkia fossil beds of northern Idaho. In Smiley CJ, Leviton A, Berson M (eds) Late Cenozoic History of the Pacific Northwest. Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences 265–348Google Scholar
  127. Taylor D, Pollard S, Louie D (1999) Mitochondrial DNA variation in bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from northwestern North America: Implications for zoogeography and conservation. Molecular Ecology 8: 1155–1170Google Scholar
  128. Templeton A, Georgiadis N (1996) A landscape approach to conservation genetics: Conserving evolutionary processes in the African bovidae. In Avise J, Hamrick J (eds), Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York 398–430Google Scholar
  129. Templeton A, Crandall KA, Sing C (1992) A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequence data. III. Cladogram estimation. Genetics 132: 619–633Google Scholar
  130. Templeton AR, Routman E, Phillips C (1995) Separating population structure from population history: A cladistic analysis of the geographical distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Genetics 140: 767–782Google Scholar
  131. Templeton AR (2004) Statistical phylogeography: methods of evaluating and minimizing inference errors. Molecular Ecology 13: 789–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thompson MD, Ray N, Russell AP (unpublished) Phylogeography of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum): Systematics and statistical biogeography of mitochondrial genesGoogle Scholar
  133. Titus T, Gains M (1991) Genetic variation in coastal and montane populations of Ambystoma gracile, (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Occasional papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence 141: 1–12Google Scholar
  134. Tzedakis P, Lawson I, Frogley M, Hewitt G, Preece R (2002) Buffered tree population changes in a quaternary refugium: evolutionary implications. Science 297: 2044–2047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Verbeylen G, De Bruyn L, Adriaensen F, Matthysen E (2003) Does matrix resistance influence Red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L. 1758) distribution in an urban landscape? Landscape Ecology 18: 791–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Waitt R, Thorson R (1983) The Cordilleran ice sheet in Washington, Idaho, and Montana. In Porter SC (ed) Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 53-70Google Scholar
  137. Walker IR, Pellatt MG (2003) Climate change in coastal British Columbia — A paleoenvironmental perspective. Canadian Water Resources Journal 28: 531–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Walsh R (1998) An extension of the known range of the long-toed salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum in Alberta. Canadian Field Naturalist 112: 331–333Google Scholar
  139. Walter R, Epperson B (2001) Geographic pattern of genetic variation in Pinus resinosa: Area of greatest diversity is not the origin of postglacial populations. Molecular Ecology 10: 103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Warner B, Mathewes R (1982) Ice-free conditions on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, at the height of late Wisconsin glaciation. Science 218: 675–677Google Scholar
  141. Wilke T, Duncan N (2004) Phylogeographical patterns in the American Pacific Northwest: lessons from the arionid slug Prophysaon coeruleum. Molecular Ecology 13: 2303–2315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Williams T, Larsen J (1986) New function for the granular skin glands of the eastern long-toed salamander, Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum. Journal of Experimental Zoology 239: 329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Yoder A, Irwin J, Payseur B (2001) Failure of the ILD to determine data combinability for Slow Loris phylogeny. Systematic Biology 50: 408–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zachos J, Flower B, Paul H (1997) Orbitally paced climate oscillations across the Olicogene/Miocene boundary. Nature 388: 567–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zamudio K, Savage WK (2003) Historical isolation, range expansion, and secondary contact of two highly divergent mitochondrial lineages in spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). Evolution 57: 1631–1652Google Scholar
  146. Lohmann KJ, Cain SD, Dodge SA, Lohmann CMF (2001) Regional magnetic fields as navigational markers for sea turtles. Science 294: 364–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Lohmann KJ, Lohmann CMF (1998) Migratory mechanisms in marine turtles. Journal of Avian Biology 29: 585–596Google Scholar
  148. Lohmann KJ, Lohmann CMF, Ehrhart LM, Bagley DA, Swing T (2004) Geomagnetic map used in sea-turtle navigation. Nature 428: 909–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lohmann KJ, Salmon M, Wyneken J (1990) Functional autonomy of land and sea orientation systems in sea turtle hatchlings. Biological Bulletin 179: 214–218Google Scholar
  150. Lohmann KJ, Swartz AW, Lohmann CMF (1995) Perception of ocean wave direction by sea turtles. Journal of Experimental Biology 198: 1079–1085Google Scholar
  151. Lohmann KJ, Witherington BE, Lohmann CMF, Salmon M (1997) Orientation, navigation and natal beach homing in sea turtles. In Lutz PL, Musick JA (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida 107–155Google Scholar
  152. Loredo I, VanVuren D, Morrison ML (1996) Habitat use and migration behavior of the California tiger salamander. Journal of Herpetology 30: 282–285Google Scholar
  153. Loveridge A (1953) Zoological results of a fifth expedition to East Africa IV Amphibians from Nyasaland and Tete. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 110: 325–406Google Scholar
  154. Luschi P (2003) Migration and conservation: the case of sea turtles. In Festa-Bianchet M, Apollonio M (eds) Animal Behavior and Wildlife Conservation Island Press, Washington, Corelo and London 49–61Google Scholar
  155. Luschi P, Papi F, Liew HC, Chan EH, Bonadonna F (1996) Long-distance migration and homing after displacement in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas): a satellite tracking study. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 178: 447–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Luschi P, Hays GC, Del-Seppia C, Marsh R, Papi F (1998) The navigational feats of green sea turtles migrating from Ascension Island investigated by satellite telemetry. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 265: 2279–2284Google Scholar
  157. Luschi P, Åkesson S, Broderick AC, Glen F, Godley BJ, Papi F, Hays GC (2001) Testing the navigational abilities of ocean migrants: displacement experiments on green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Behavior, Ecology, Sociobiology 50: 528–534Google Scholar
  158. Luschi P, Hays GC, Papi F (2003) A review of long-distance movements by marine turtles, and the possible role of ocean currents. Oikos 103: 293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Luschi P, Hughes GR, Mencacci R, DeBernardi E, Sale A, Broker R, Bouwer M, Papi F (2003) Satellite tracking of migrating loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) displaced in the open sea. Marine Biology 143: 793–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Lutcavage, M (1996) Planning your next meal: leatherback travel routes and ocean fronts In Keinath JA, Barnard DE, Musick JA, Bell BA (compilers) Proceedings of the 15th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA, Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-387 174–178Google Scholar
  161. Madison DM (1997) The emigration of radio-implanted spotted salamanders, Ambystoma maculatum. Journal of Herpetology 31: 542–551Google Scholar
  162. Madsen T, Shine R (1996) Seasonal migrations of predators and prey: A study of pythons and rats in tropical Australia. Ecology 77: 149–156Google Scholar
  163. Malmgren JC (2002) How does a newt find its way from a pond? Migration patterns after breeding and metamorphosis in Great Crested Newts (Triturus cristatus) and smooth newts (T. vulgaris). Herpetological Journal 12: 29–35Google Scholar
  164. Manton M, Karr A, Ehrenfeld DW (1972) Chemoreception in the migratory sea turtle, Chelonia mydas. Biological Bulletin 143: 184–195Google Scholar
  165. Marquèz R (1994) Synopsis of the biological data on the Kemp’s Ridley Turtle Lepidochelys kempii (Garman, 1880). NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-343 91ppGoogle Scholar
  166. Martinez-Solano I, Goncalves HA, Arntzen JW, García-París M (2004) Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of midwife toads (Discoglossidae: Alytes). Journal of Biogeography 31: 603–618Google Scholar
  167. Martof B (1953) Home range and movements of the green frog, Rana clamitans. Ecology 34: 529–543Google Scholar
  168. Martof B (1962) Some observations on the role of olfaction among salientian amphibia. Physiological Zoology 35: 270–272Google Scholar
  169. Mathis A, Moore FR (1988) Geomagnetism and the homeward orientation of the box turtle, Terrapene Carolina. Ethology 78: 265–274Google Scholar
  170. Mayhew WW (1963) Biology of the granite spiny lizard, Sceloporus orcutti. American Midland Naturalist 69: 310–327Google Scholar
  171. McCoy ED, Mushinsky HR, Wilson DS (1993) Pattern in the compass orientation of gopher tortoise burrows at different spatial scales. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 3: 33–40Google Scholar
  172. McGregor JH, Teska WR (1989) Olfaction as an orientation mechanism in migrating Ambystoma maculatum. Copeia 3: 779–781Google Scholar
  173. Meylan AB (1982) Sea turtle migration: evidence from tag returns. In Bjorndal KA (ed) Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC 91–100Google Scholar
  174. Meylan AB (1999) Status of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the Caribbean region. Chelonian Conservation Biology 3: 177–184Google Scholar
  175. Meylan AB, Bowen BW, Avise JC (1990) A genetic test of the natal homing versus social facilitation models for Green Turtle migration. Science 248: 724–727Google Scholar
  176. Miller JD (1997) Reproduction in sea turtles. Lutz PL, Musick JA (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca-Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  177. Modha ML (1967) The ecology of the Nile crocodile (Crocodilus niloticus Laurenti) on Central Island, Lake Rudolf. East African Wildlife Journal 5: 74–95Google Scholar
  178. Modha ML (1968) Crocodile research project, Central Island, Lake Rudolf: 1967 breeding season. East African Wildlife Journal 6: 148–150Google Scholar
  179. Morreale SJ, Standora EA, Paladino FV (1994) Leatherback migrations along deep water bathymetric contours. Schroeder BA, Witherington BE (compilers) Proceedings of the 13th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle biology and Conservation. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-341 109–110Google Scholar
  180. Morreale SJ, Standora EA, Spotila JR, Paladino FV (1996) Migration corridor for sea turtles. Nature 384: 319–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Mortimer JA, Carr A (1987) Reproduction and migration of the Ascension Island green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Copeia 1987: 103–113Google Scholar
  182. Mrosovsky N, Kingsmill SF (1985) How turtles find the sea. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 67: 237–256Google Scholar
  183. Musick JA, Limpus CJ (1997) Habitat utilization and migration in juvenile sea turtles. Lutz PL, Musick JA (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  184. Nagelkirken I, Pors LPJJ, Hoetjes P (2003) Swimming behaviour and dispersal patterns of headstarted loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta. Aquatic Ecology 37: 183–190Google Scholar
  185. Neill WT (1971) The Last of the Ruling Reptiles: Alligators, Crocodiles and their Kin. Columbia University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  186. Newcomer RT, Taylor DH, Guttman SI (1974) Celestial orientation in two species of water snakes (Natrix sipedon and Regina septemvittata). Herpetologica 30: 194–200Google Scholar
  187. Nichols WJ, Resendiz A, Seminoff JA, Resendiz B (2000) Transpacific migration of a loggerhead turtle monitored by satellite telemetry. Bulletin of Marine Science 67: 937–947Google Scholar
  188. Nietschmann B (1981) Following the underwater trail of a vanishing species, the hawksbill turtle. National Geographi Society Research Reports 13: 459–480Google Scholar
  189. Orr RF (1982) Vertebrate Biology 5th Ed. Saunders College Publishing, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  190. Ouboter PE, Nanhoe LM (1988) Habitat selection and migration of Caiman crocodilus crocodilus in a swamp and swamp-forest habitat in northern Suriname. Journal of Herpetology 22: 283–294Google Scholar
  191. Palis JG (1997) Breeding migration of Ambystoma cingulatum in Florida. Journal of Herpetology 31: 71–78Google Scholar
  192. Palo JU, Lesbarreres D, Schmeller DS, Primmer CR, Merila J (2004) Microsatellite marker data suggest sex-biased dispersal in the common frog Rana temporaria. Molecular Ecology 13: 2865–2869Google Scholar
  193. Papi F (1992) Animal Homing. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  194. Papi F, Luschi P (1996) Pinpointing “Isla Meta”: The case of sea turtles and albatrosses. Journal of Experimental Biology 199: 65–71Google Scholar
  195. Papi F, Luschi P, Crosio E, Hughes GR (1997) Satellite tracking experiments on the navigational ability and migratory behaviour of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta. Marine Biology 129: 215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Papi F, Luschi P, Åkesson S, Capogrossi S, Hays GC (2000) Open-sea migration of magnetically disturbed sea turtles. Journal of Experimental Biology 203: 3435–3443Google Scholar
  197. Parmenter CJ (1993) Australian sea turtle research and conservation and management: a 1993 status review. In Lunney D, Ayers D (eds) Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosmon, New South Wales, Australia 321–325Google Scholar
  198. Parmenter CJ (1994) Species review: the flatback turtle, Natator depressa. James R (ed) Proceedings of the Australian Marine Turtle Conservation Workshop (1990). Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra 60–62Google Scholar
  199. Pasenen S, Sorjonen A (1995) An orientation experiment conducted during autumn migration of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Memoranda Societas Fauna Flora Fennica 71: 113–117Google Scholar
  200. Pauly GB, Hillis DA, Cannatella DC (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58: 2517–2535Google Scholar
  201. Pearson PG (1955) Population ecology of the spade-foot toad, Scaphiopus h. holbrooki (Harlan). Ecological Monographs 25: 233–267Google Scholar
  202. Pearson PG (1957) Further notes on the population ecology of the spadefoot. Ecology 38: 580–586Google Scholar
  203. Peters A, Verhoeven KJF (1994) Impact of artificial lighting on the seaward orientation of hatchling loggerhead turtles. Journal of Herpetology 28: 112–114Google Scholar
  204. Petranka JW (1998) Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  205. Phillips CA, Sexton OJ (1989) Orientation and sexual differences during the breeding migration of the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum. Copeia 1989: 17–22Google Scholar
  206. Phillips JB (1977) Use of the earth’s magnetic field by orienting cave salamanders (Erycea lucifuga). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 121: 273–288Google Scholar
  207. Phillips JB (1986a) Magnetic compass orientation in the Eastern red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 158: 103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Phillips JB (1987) Laboratory studies of homing orientation in the eastern redspotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens. Journal of Experimental Biology 131: 215–229Google Scholar
  209. Phillips JB (1998) Magnetoreception. In Heatwole H, Dawley EM (eds) Amphibian Biology Vol. 3 Sensory Perception. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales, Australia 954–964Google Scholar
  210. Phillips JB (1986b) Two magnetoreception pathways in a migratory salamander. Science 233: 765–767Google Scholar
  211. Phillips JB, Adler K (1978) Directional and discriminatory responses of salamanders to weak magnetic fields. In Schmidt-Koenig K, Keeton W (eds) Animal Migration, Navigation and Homing Springer-Verlag, Berlin 325–333Google Scholar
  212. Phillips JB, Borland SC (1992a) Behavioral evidence for use of a light dependent magnetoreception mechanism by a vertebrate. Nature 359: 142–144Google Scholar
  213. Phillips JB, Borland SC (1992b) Wavelength specific effects of light on magnetic compass orientation in the eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridiscens. Ethology, Ecology, Evolution 4: 33–42Google Scholar
  214. Phillips JB, Borland SC (1994) Use of a specialized magnetoreception system for homing by the eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridiscens. Journal of Experimental Biology 188: 275–291Google Scholar
  215. Phillips JB, Adler K, Borland SC (1995) True navigation of an amphibian. Animal Behavior 50: 855–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Phillips, JB, Deutschlander ME, Freake MJ, Borland SC (2001) The role of extraocular photoreceptors in newt magnetic compass orientation: parallels between light-dependent magnetoreception and polarized light detection in vertebrates. Journal of Experimental Biology 188: 275–291Google Scholar
  217. Pilliod DS, Peterson CR, Ritson PI (2002) Seasonal migration of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) among complementary resources in a high mountain basin. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80: 1849–1862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Plotkin PT (2003) Adult migration and habitat use. In Lutz PL, Musick JA, Wyneken J (eds) The Biology of Sea Turtles Volume II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  219. Plotkin PT, Spotila JR (2002) Post-nesting migrations of loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta from Georgia, USA: conservation implications for a genetically distinct subpopulation. Oryx 36: 396–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Plotkin PT, Byles RA, Rostal DC, Owens DW (1995) Independent versus socially facilitated oceanic migrations of the olive ridley, Lepidochelys olivacea. Marine Biology 122: 137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Plummer MV, Shirer HW (1975) Movement patterns in a river population of the softshell turtle Trionyx muticus. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 43: 1–26Google Scholar
  222. Polovina JJ, Balazs GH, Howell EA, Parker DM, Seki MP, Dutton PH (2004) Forage and migration habitat of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles in the central North Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Oceanography 13: 36–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Pough HF, Andrews RM, Cadle JE, Crump ML, Savitzky AH, Wells KD (1998) Herpetology Prentice Hall Inc., New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  224. Pough HF, Janis CM, Heiser JB (2002) Vertebrate Life 6th Ed. Prentice Hall Inc, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  225. Pritchard PCH (1976) Post-nesting movements of marine turtles (Cheloniidae and Dermochelidae) tagged in the Guyanas. Copeia 1976: 749–752Google Scholar
  226. Quinn NWS, Tate DP (1991) Seasonal movements and habitat of wood turtles (Clemmys insculpta) in Algonquin Park, Canada. Journal of Herpetology 25: 217–220Google Scholar
  227. Rand AS (1967) Ecology and social organization in the iguanid lizard Anolis lineatopus. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 122: 1–79Google Scholar
  228. Rand AS (1968) A nesting aggregation of Iguanas. Copeia 3: 552–561Google Scholar
  229. Rebel TP (1974) Sea Turtles and the Turtle Industry of the West Indies, Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico. Revised Edition University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  230. Reinert HK, Kodrich WR (1982) Movements and habitat utilization by the massassauga, Sistrurus catenatus catenatus. Journal of Herpetology 16: 152–171Google Scholar
  231. Renaud ML, Carpenter JA, Williams JA, Landry AMJ (1996) Kemp’s ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) tracked by satellite telemetry from Louisiana to nesting beach at Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Chelonian Conservation Biology 2: 108–109Google Scholar
  232. Resendiz A, Resendiz B, Nichols WJ, Seminoff JA, Kamezaki N (1998) First confirmed east-west transpacific movement of a loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, released in Baja California, Mexico. Pacific Science 52: 151–153Google Scholar
  233. Rodda GH (1984) The orientation and navigation of juvenile alligators: evidence of magnetic sensitivity. Journal of Comparative Biology 154: 648–658Google Scholar
  234. Rodda GH (1985) Navigation in juvenile alligators. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 68: 65–77Google Scholar
  235. Rodhouse P, Barling RWA, Clark WIC (1975) The feeding and ranging behaviour of the Galapagos giant tortoises (Geochelone elephantopus): The Cambridge and London University Galapagos Expeditions 1972 and 1973. Journal of Zoology, London 176: 297–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Russell AP, Bauer AM (2000) The Amphibians and Reptiles of Alberta: A Field Guide and Primer of Boreal Herpetology 2nd Ed. University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  237. Salmon M (2003) Artificial night lighting and sea turtles. Biologist 50: 163–168Google Scholar
  238. Salmon M, Lohmann KJ (1989) Orientation cues used by hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta L.) during their offshore migration. Ethology 83: 215–228Google Scholar
  239. Salmon M, Wyneken J (1990) Do swimming loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta L.) use light cues for offshore orientation? Marine Behaviour and Physiology 17: 233–246Google Scholar
  240. Schabetsberger R, Jehle R, Maletzky A, Pesta J, Sztatecsny M (2004) Delineation of terrestrial reserves for amphibians: post-nesting migrations of Italian crested newts (Triturus c carnifex) at high altitude. Biological Conservation 117: 95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Scoccianti C (2000) Study on road stretches at high risk for the migration of amphibians (focal crossing points) in the Province of Florence: proposals and measures to minimize impact. Rivista di Idrobiologia 38: 323–332Google Scholar
  242. Semlitsch RD (1985) Analysis of climatic factors influencing migrations of the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum. Copeia 2: 477–489Google Scholar
  243. Semlitsch RD, McMillan MA (1980) Breeding migrations, population size structure and reproduction of the dwarf salamander, Eurycea quadridigitata, in South Carolina. Brimleyana 3: 97–105Google Scholar
  244. Semlitsch RD, Pechmann JHK (1985) Diel patterns of migratory activity for several species of pond-breeding salamanders. Copeia 1985: 86–91Google Scholar
  245. Sexton OJ, Phillips C, Bramble JE (1990) The effects of temperature in the breeding migration of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Copeia 1990: 781–787Google Scholar
  246. Shealy RM (1976) The natural history of the Alabama map turtle, Graptemys pulchra Baur, in Alabama. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 21: 47–111Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark D. Thompson
    • 1
  • Anthony P. Russell
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Science and ManagementUniversity of Northern British ColumbiaPrince GeorgeCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations