Thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers with mesogenic side groups

  • Valery P. Shibaev
  • Nicolai A. Platé
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 60/61)

Abstract

The article covers synthesis, structure and properties of thermotropic liquid-crystalline (LC) polymers with mesogenic side groups. Approaches towards the synthesis of such systems and the conditions for their realization in the LC state are presented, as well as the data revealing the relationship between the molecular structure of an LC polymer and the type of mesophase formed. Specific features of thermotropic LC polymers and copolymers of nematic, smectic and cholesteric types are considered.

The possibility to affect the structure of an LC polymer by the influence of electric and magnetic fields is demonstrated. The kinetics and the mechanism of structural rearrangements are discussed.

The initial steps of mesophase formation in dilute solutions of polymers are examined.

List of Abbreviations and Main Symbols

LC

Liquid Crystalline

K

Crystalline State

N, S, Ch

Nematic, Smectic and Cholesteric Phases, respectively

Chol

Cholesterol group

PChMA-n and PChMO-n

Cholesterol esters of poly-N-methacryloyl-ω-amino-carboxylic and ω-oxycarboxylic acids, respectively

A-n and Pa-n

n-Alkyl Acrylates and Poly-n-Alkylacrylates

MA-n and PMA-n

n-Alkyl Methacrylates and Poly-n-Alkyl Methacrylates

IMM

Intramolecular Mobility

Ef, EA and Eor

Activation energies of the viscous flow, dielectric relaxation process and orientational process in an electric field

Ed.pb and Ed.ps

Activation energies of the dipole polarization in bulk and solution

τd.pb and τd.ps

Relaxation times of the dipole polarization in bulk and solution

fR

Dielectric relaxation frequency

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

8 References

  1. 1.
    Uematsu, J., Uematsu, Y.: this issue, p. 37Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    De-Visser, A., De Groot, K. Banties, A.: J. Polymer Sci. 9, A-1, 1893 (1971)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Platé, N. A., Shibaev, V. P., Tal'roze, R. V.: in Uspekhi khimii i fiziki polimerov (Advances in chemistry and physics of polymers), Khimiya, Moscow 1973, p. 127Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Strzelecki, L., Liebert, L.: Bull. Soc. chim. France, N 2, 605 (1973)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blumstein, A., Blumstein, R., Murphy, G., J. Billard: in Liquid Crystals and Ordered Fluids (Ed.s. Johnson, J. F., Porter, R. S.), Plenum Press, New York 1974, vol. 2, p. 277Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shibaev, V. P.: Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Sciences, Moscow State University, Moscow 1974Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Perplies, E., Ringsdorf, H., Wendorff, J.: Makromol. Chem. 175, 553 (1974)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Abstracts of papers at the 3-rd all-Union Conference on Liquid Crystals, p. 214, Ivanovo, 1974Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shibaev, V. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Platé, N. A.: Abstracts of papers at the 11-th Mendeleev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry, vol. 2, p. 164, Nauka, Moscow, 1975Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shibaev, V. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Platé, N. A.: USSR Inventor's Certificate No 525709, Byull. izobreteneiy N 31, 1976Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomolek. Soedin. A 19, 923 (1977)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Platé, N. A., Shibaev, V. P.: Grebneobraznye polimeri i zhidkie kristally (Comblike polymers and liquid crystals), Khimiya, Moscow, 1980Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Amerik, Yu. B., Krentzel, B. A.: Khimiya zhidkikh kristallov i mesomorphnyh polimernyh sistem (Chemistry of liquid crystals and mesomophic polymer systems), Nauka, Moscow, 1981Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mesomorphic Order in Polymers and Polymerization in Liquid Crystalline Media (Ed. Blumstein, A.). Amer. Chem. Soc. Symposium Series N 74, ACS, Washington, D.C., 1978Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers (Ed. Blumstein, A.), Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, London, 1978Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roviello, A., Sirigu, A.: Polymer Letters 13, 455 (1975)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tsukruk, V. V., Shilov, V. V., Konstantinov, I. I., Lipatov, Yu. S., Amerik, Yu. B.: Europ. Polymer J. 18, 1015 (1982)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Papkov, S. P., Kulichikhin, V. G.: Zhidko-kristallicheskoe sostoyanie polimerov (Liquid Crystalline state of polymers), Khimiya, Moscow, 1977Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mc Intyre, J., Mulburn, A.: British Polymer J. 13, 5 (1981)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meurisse, P., Noel, C., Monnerie, L., Fayolle, B.: ibid. 13, 55 (1981)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jackson, W., Kuhfuss, H.: J. Polymer Sci. 14, 2043 (1976)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Polk, M., Bota, K., Akubuiro, E., Phingbodhipakiya, M.: Macromolecules 14, 1626 (1982)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cox, M., Griffin, B.: British Polymer J. 12, 147 (1980)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wissbrun, K.: ibid 12, 163 (1980)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Preston, J., in Liquid crystalline order in polymers (Ed. Blumstein, A.): Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, London, 1978, p. 141Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mc Intyre, J.: this issue, p. 61Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rehage, G., Finkelmann, H.: this issue, p. 99Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hardy, Gy, Nyitrai, K., Cser, F.: Abstracts of the fifth International Liquid Crystal Conference of Socialist Countries, Odessa, USSR, 1983, v. 2, part 1, p. 98Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kamogawa, H.: J. Polymer Sci. B 10, 7 (1972)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Paleos, C., Filippakis, S., Margomenou-Leonidopoulou, G.: J. Polym. Sci.-Polym. Chem. Ed. 19, 1427 (1981)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paleos, G., Margomenou-Leonidopoulou, G., Filippakis, S., Malliaris, A.: J. Polym. Sci. — Polym. Chem. Ed. 20, 2267 (1982)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Finkelmann, H., Rehage, G.: Makromol. Chem.-Rapid Commun. 1, 31 (1980)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Platé, N. A., Shibaev, V. P.: J. Polym. Sci. — Macromolec. Rev. 8, 117 (1974)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A., Kargin, V. A.: Proceedings of the Third European Regional Conference on Electron Microscopy, Prague, 1964, v. A., p. 415Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shibaev, V. P., Petrukhin, B. S., Zubov, Yu. A., Platé, N. A., Kargin, V. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 10, 216 (1968)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shibaev, V. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A-20, 82 (1982)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shibaev, V. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Kharitonov, A. V., Platé, N. A.: Preprints of Short Communications of 26 International Symposium on Macromolecules, Mainz, FRG, 1979, v. III, p. 1571Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Finkelmann, H., Frenzel, J., Rehage, G.: Abstracts of Commun. 27-th International Symposium on Macromolecules, Strasbourg, v. 2, 965 (1981)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Finkelmann, H., Kokk, H., Rehage, G.: Macromol. Chemie 2, 317 (1981)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Allcock, H., Fuller, T.: Macromolecules 13, 1338 (1980)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shibaev, V. P., Kulichikhin, V. G., Kostromin, S. G., Vasileva, N. V., Braverman, L. P., Plate, N. A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 263, 152 (1982)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Blinov, L. M.: Elektro-i magnitooptika zhidkih kristallov (Electrooptics and magnitooptics of liquid crystals), Nauka, Moscow, 1978Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    De Gennes, P. G.: The Physics of Liquid Crystals, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1974Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shibaev, V. P., Tal'roze, R. V., Sinitzyn, V. V., Kostromin, S. G., Platé, N. A.: Proceedings of the 28 International Macromolecular Symposium, Amherst, USA, 1982, p. 814Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shibaev, V. P.: in Advances in liquid crystal, research and applications (Ed. L. Bata); Oxford: Pergamon Press-Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, v. 2, 869 (1980)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shibaev, V. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Platé, N. A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 227, 1412 (1976)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shibaev, V. P., Kostromin, S. G., Platé, N. A.: Europ. Polym. J. 18, 651 (1982)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhidkie kristally (Liquid Crystals) Ed. Zhdanov, S. I., p. 317, Khimiya, Moscow, 1979Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kostromin, S. G., Tal'roze, R. V., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Macromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 3, 803 (1982)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Freidzon, Ya. S., Kharitonov, A. V., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Mol. Cryst., Liq. Cryst. 88, 87 (1982)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Frosini, V., Levita, G., Lupinacci, D., Magagnini, P.: Mol. Cryst., Liq. Cryst. 66, 341 (1981)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Magagnini, P., Marchetti, A., Matera, F., Pizzirani, G., Turchi, G.: Europ. Polym. J. 10, 585 (1974)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Maganini, P.: Makromol. Chemie 4, 223 (1981)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gray, G. W.: in Liquid Crystals and Plastic Crystals, vol. 1, (Eds. Gray, G. W., Winsor, P. A.), Ellis Horwood, Chichester 1974Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Matheson, R. R., Flory, P. J.: Macromolecules 14, 954 (181)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kuznetzov, D. V., Khokhlov, A. R.: Vysokomolek. Soedin. 24, 418 (1982)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Birshtein, T. M., Kolegov, B. I., Goryanov, A. N., Abstracts of the fourth international liquid crystal conference of socialist countries, Tbilisi, USSR, 1981, v. 2, p. 146Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vasilenko, S. V., Khokhlov, A. R., Shibaev, V. P.: Macromol. Chemie Rapid. Commun. 3, 920 (1982)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vasilenko, S. V., Khokhlov, A. R., Shibaev, V. P.: Abstracts of the First all-Union Symposium on Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Suzdal, USSR, p. 114, 1982Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lisezki, L. N.: ibid, p. 26, 1982Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Flory, P. J.: Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 234, 60 (1956)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kostromin, S. G.: Dissertation for the Degree of Candidate of Sciences, Moscow State University, Moscow, 1982Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wendorff, I. H., Finkelmann, H., Ringsdorf, H.: J. Polymer Sci-Polymer Symposium 63, 245 (1978)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shibaev, V. P., Moiseenko, V. M., Freidzon, Ya. S., Platé, N. A.: Europ. Polymer. J. 16, 277 (1980)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sinitzyn, V. V.: Dissertation for the Degree of Candidate of Sciences, Moscow State University, Moscow, 1982Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tal'roze, R. V., Sinitzyn, V. V., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Mol. Cryst., Lig. Cryst. 80, 211 (1982)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fayolle, B., Noel, C., Billard, J.: J. de Physique 40, C3–485 (1979)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Griffin, A., Havens, S.: Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 49, 239 (1979)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Griffin, A., Havens, S.: J. Polym. Sci.-Polym. Lett. Ed. 18, 259 (1980)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cser, F.: J. de Physique Colleque 40, C3–499 (1979)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cser, F., Hyitrai, K., Hardy, G.: in Advances in liquid crystal, research and applications (Ed. L. Bata), Oxford: Pergamon Press-Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, v. 2, p. 845, 1980Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hardy, G., Cser, F., Hyitrai, K.: Abstracts of the fourth International Liquid Crystal Conference of Socialist Countries, Tbilisi, USSR, 1981, v. 1, p. 371Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cser, F., ibid.,, v. 2, p. 223, 1981Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kozlovski, M. V., Shibaev, V. P.: Abstracts of the First all-Union Symposium on Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Suzdal, USSR, p. 47, 1982Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kostromin, S. G., Sinitzyn, V. V., Tal'roze, R. V., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Makromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 3, 809 (1982)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lipatov, Yu. S., Tsukruk, V. V., Shilov, V. V., Grebneva, V. S., Konstantinov, I. I., Amerik, Yu. B.: Vysokomol. Soedin. B23, 818 (1981)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tsukruk, V. V., Shilov, V. V., Lipatov, Yu. S., Konstantinov, J. J., Amerik, Yu. B.: Acta Polymerica 33, 63 (1982)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tsukruk, V. V.: Dissertation for the Degree of Candidate of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Kiev, 1982Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wendorff, J. H., Finkelmann, H., Ringsdorf, H.: in Mesomorphic Order in Polymers and Polymerization in Liquid Crystalline Media (Ed. A. Blumstein), ACS Symposium Series, Washington, D. C., American Chemical Society, v. 74, p. 12, 1978Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Finkelmann, H., Ringsdorf, H., Siol, W., Wendorff, I. H., ibid: in v. 74, 22 (1977)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kelker, H., Wirzing, U.: Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 49, 175 (1979)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Finkelmann, H., Happ, M., Portugal, M., Ringsdorf, H.: Makromol. Chemie 179, 2541 (1978)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Blumstein, A.: Macromolecules 10, 872 (1977)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Clough, S. B., Blumstein, A., De Vries, A.: Polymer Preprints 18, 1 (1977)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Blumstein, A., Blumstein, R., Clough, S. B., Hsu, E. C.: Macromolecules 8, 73 (1975)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shibaev, V. P., Kharitonov, A. V., Freidzon, Ya. S., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 21, 1849 (1979)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Kharitonov, A. V., Platé, N. A.: in Advances in liquid crystal, research and applications (Ed. L. Bata), Oxford: Pergamon Press-Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, v. 2, p. 899, 1980Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Perplies, E., Ringsdorf, H., Wendorff, I. H.: Berg. Buns. Phys. Chem. 78, 921 (1974)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sinitzyn, V. V., Tal'roze, R. V., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Abstracts of the fourth International Liquid Crystal Conference of Socialist Countries, Tbilisi, USSR, 1981, v. 2, 213Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Konstantinov, I. I., Grebneva, V. S., Amerik, Yu. B., Sitnov, A. A.: ibid, v. 2, p. 183, 1981Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A., Freidzon, Ya. S.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 17, 1655 (1979)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A., Freidzon, Ya. S.: in Mesomorphic Order in Polymers and Polymerization in Liquid Crystalline Media (Ed. A. Blumstein), ACS Symposium Series, Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society, v. 74, p. 33, 1978Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Kustova, N. N., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 22, 1083 (1980)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Clough, S. B., Blumstein, A., De Vries, A.: Mesomorphic Order in Polymers and Polymerization in Liquid Crystalline Media (Ed. A. Blumstein), ACS Symposium Series, Washington, D.C., American Chem. Soc. v. 74, p. 1, 1978Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Blumstein, A., Clough, S. B., Patel, L., Blumstein, R. B., Hsu, E. C.: Macromolecules 9, 243 (1976)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Demus, D., Richter, L.: Textures of Liquid Crystals, Leipzig, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, 1980.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shibaev, V. P., Moiseenko, V. M., Platé, N. A.: Makromol. Chemie 181, 1381 (1980)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gudkov, V. A., Chistaykov, I. G., Vainshtein, B. K., Shibaev, V. P.: Crystallografia 27, 537 (1982)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shibaev, V. P., Moiseenko, V. M., Lukin, N. Yu., Platé, N. A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 237, 401 (1977)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Shibaev, V. P., Moiseenko, V. M., Smolyanski, A. L., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin A 23, 1969 (1981)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Konstantinov, I. I.: J. de Physique 40, C3–475 (1979)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hahn, B., Wendorff, I. H., Portugall, M., Ringsdorf, H.: Colloid. and Polym. Sci. 259, 875 (1981)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tal'roze, R. V., Karakhanova, F. I., Borisova, T. I., Burshtein, L. L., Nikanorova, N. I., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 20, 1835 (1978)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shibaev, V. P., Tal'roze, R. V., Karakhanova, F. I., Platé, N. A.: J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. A 17, 1671 (1979)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Finkelmann, H., Rehage, G.: Makromol. Chemie, Rapid Commun. 1, 733 (1980)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lipatov, Yu. S., Tsukruk, V. V., Shilov, V. V., Konstantinov, I. I., Amerik, Yu. B.: Vysokomolek. Soedin. A 23, 1533 (1981)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lipatov, Yu. S., Tsukruk, V. V., Shilov, V. V., Grebneva, V. S., Konstantinov, I. I., Amerik, Yu. B.: Abstracts of the fourth International Liquid Crystal Conference of Socialist Countries, Tbilisi, USSR, 1981, v. 2, 191Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shilov, V. V., Tzukruk, V. V., Lipatov, Yu. S.: Abstracts of the first All-Union Symposium on Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Suzdal, USSR, p. 23, 1982Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tsukruk, V. V., Shilov, V. V., Lipatov, Yu. S.: Crystallografia 29, 520 (1984)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shilov, V. V., Tsukruk, V. V., Bliznyuk, V. N., Lipatov, Yu. S.: Polymer 23, 484 (1982)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tsukruk, V. V., Shilov, V. V., Lipatov, Yu. S.: Makromol. Chem. 183, 2009 (1982)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Roganova, Z. A., Smoliansky, A. L.: Abstracts of the first All-Union Symposium on Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Suzdal, USSR, p. 28, 1982Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Clough, S. B., Blumstein, A., Hsu, E. C.: Macromolecules 9, 123 (1976)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hsu, E., Blumstein, A.: J. Polym. Sci., Letters 15, 129 (1977)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Liebert, L., Strzelecki, L.: Bull. Soc. Chim. France 2, 603 (1973)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Cser, F., Nyitrai, K., Seyfried, E., Hardy, Gy.: European Polym. J. 13, 678 (1977)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Finkelmann, H., Ringsdorf, H., Wendorff, J.: Makromol. Chemie 179, 273 (1978)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ringsdorf, H., Schneller, A.: British Polym. J. 13, 43 (1981)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ringsdorf, H., Zentel, R.: Abstracts of Communications of 27-th International Symposium on macromolecules, Strasbourg, France, v. 2, p. 969, 1981Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ringsdorf, H., Zentel, R.: Makromol. Chem. 183, 1245 (1982)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kostromin, S. G., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Abstracts of the fourth International liquid crystal Conference of Socialist countries, Tbilisi, USSR, v. 2, p. 185, 1981Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Platé, N. A., Shibaev, V. P.: J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symposium 67, 1 (1980)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mousa, A. M., Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Polymer Bull. 6, 485 (1982)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Shibaev, V. P., Kostromin, S. G., Talroze, R. V., Platé, N. A.: Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR 259, 1147 (1981)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Vainshtein, B. K., Gudkov, V. A., Chistyakov, I. G., Shibaev, V. P.: Abstracts of the fourth International liquid crystal Conference of Socialist Countries, Tbilisi, USSR, v. 1, p. 15, 1981Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kapustin, A. P.: Eksperimentalnye issledovaniya zhidkih Kristallov (Experimental investigations of liquid crystalls), Moscow, Nauka, 1978, p. 106Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Blinov, L. M., Yablonski, S. V., Shibaev, V. P., Kostromin, S. G.: Abstracts of Ninth International Conference of Liquid Crystals, Bangalore, India, p. 275, 1982Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nikonorova, N. A., Borisova, T. J., Burstein, L. L., Shibaev, V. P.: Abstracts of 12th Europhysics Conference on Macromolecular Physics, Leipzig, GDR, 1981, p. 313Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Borisova, T. J., Burshtein, L. L., Stepanova, T. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. 18, 628 (1976)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nikonorova, N. A., Borisova, T. J.: Abstracts of the first all-Union Symposium on Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Suzdal, USSR, p. 103, 1982Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Borisova, T. I., Burshtein, L. L., Stepanova, T. P., Shibaev, V. P.: Vysokomol., Soedin. 21, 829 (1979)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Borisova, T. I., Burshtein, L. L., Stepanova, T. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 24, 1103 (1982)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Borisova, T. I., Burshtein, L. L., Stepanova, T. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Kharitonov, A. V., Shibaev, V. P.: Vysokomol. Soedin. 24, 451 (1982)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Burshtein, L. L., Shibaev, V. P.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 24, 3 (1982)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shibaev, V. P., Freidzon, Yu. S., Agranovich, I. M., Pautov, V. D., Anufrieva, E. V., Platé, N. A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 232, 401 (1977)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Anufrieva, E. V., Pautov, V. D., Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 19, 755 (1977)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kresse, H., Tal'roze, R. V.: Makromol. Chemie Rapid Commun. 2, 369 (1981)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kresse, H., Kostromin, S. G., Shibaev, V. P.: Makromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 3, 509 (1982)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Shibaev, V. P., Moiseenko, V. M., Lukin, N. Yu., Kuznetov, N. A., Roganova, Z. A., Smolyansky, A. L., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 20, 2122 (1978)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kostromin, S. G., Kozlova, E. Yu.: Abstracts of the first All-Union Symposium on Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Suzdal, USSR, p. 48, 1982Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Park, Y., Bac, C., Labes, M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 4398 (1975)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Belaykov, V. A., Sonin, A. S.: Optica kholestericheskikh zidkih kristallov (Optics of cholesteric liquid Crystals), Moscow, Nauka, 1982Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Finkelmann, H., Koldehoff, Y., Ringsdorf, H.: Angew. Chem. 17, 935 (1978)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Shibaev, V. P., Finkelmann, H., Kharitonov, A. V., Portugall, M., Platé, N. A., Ringsdorf, H.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 23, 919 (1982)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Finkelmann, H., Ringsdorf, H., Siol, W., Wendorff, J.: Makromol. Chemie 179, 829 (1978)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Freidzon, Ya. S., Boiko, N. I., Platé, N. A.: Abstracts of the first All-Union Symposium on Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Suzdal, USSR, p. 24, 1982Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chistyakov, I. G.: Zhidkie kristally (Liquid Crystals), Moscow, Nauka, 1966Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kapustin, A. P.: Electroopticheskie i akysticheskie svoistva zidkikh kristallov (Electrooptical and acoustic properties of Liquid Crystals) Moscow, Nauka, 1973Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Pikin, S. A.: Stryktyrnye prevrasheniya v zhidkin kristallah (Structural transformations in liquid crystals), Moscow, Nauka, 1981Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Meier, G., Sackmann, E., Grabmaier, J.: Applications of Liquid Crystals, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg New York, 9, 1975Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Finkelmann, H., Naegele, D., Ringsdorf, H.: Makromol. Chemie 180, 803 (1979)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Aguilera, G., Ringsdorf, H., Schneller, A., Zehtel, R.: Preprints of International Symposium on Macromolecules, Florence, Italy, Litografia Felici, v. 3, p. 306, 1980Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Moiseenko, V. M.: Dissertation for the Degree of Candidate of Sciences, Moscow State University, Moscow, 1978Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Tal'roze, R. V., Sinitzyn, V. V., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: in Advances in liquid crystal, research and applications (Ed. L. Bata), Oxford: Pergamon Press-Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, v. 2, p. 915, 1980Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Tal'roze, R. V., Kostromin, S. G., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A., Kresse, H., Sauer, K., Demus, D.: Makromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 2, 305 (1981)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Platé, N. A., Tal'roze, R. V., Kostromin, S. G., Shibaev, V. P., Kresse, H.: Abstracts of Commun. 27 International Symposium on macromolecules, Strasbourg, France, 1981, v. 2, p. 978Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Tal'roze, R. V., Kostromin, S. G., Sinitzyn, V. V., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Abstracts of Commun. 12 Europhysical Conference on Macromolecular Physics, Leipzig, GDR, 1981, p. 313Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Tal'roze, R. V., Kostromin, S. G., Sinitzyn, V. V., Shibaev, V. P., Plate, N. A.: Abstracts of the fourth International liquid crystal Conference of Socialist countries, Tbilisi, USSR, v. 2, p. 215, 1981Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Shibaev, V. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Tal'roze, R. V., Platé, N. A.: Preprints of International Symposium on Macromolecules, Florence, Italy, Litografia Felici., v. 3, p. 310, 1980.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Krigbaum, W. R., Lader, H. J., Ciferri, A.: Macromolecules 13, 554 (1980)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Krigbaum, W. R., Lader, H. J.: Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 2, 87 (1980)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Krigbaum, W. R., Grantham, C. E., Toriumi, H.: Macromolecules 15, 592 (1982)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Benthack, H., Finkelmann, H., Rehage, G.: Abstracts of Communications of 27-th International Symposium on Macromolecules, Strasbourg, France, v. 2, p. 961, 1981Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Finkelmann, H., Day, D.: Makromol. Chem. 180, 2269 (1979)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Van Dusen, J. G., Williams, D. J., Meredith, G. R.: Proceedings of the 28 International Macromolecular Symposium, Amherst, USA, 1982, p. 814Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Wassmer, K., Ohmes, E., Kothe, G., Portugall, M., Ringsdorf, H.: Macromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 3, 281 (1982)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Piskunov, M. V., Kostromin, S. G., Stroganov, L. B., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Nakromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 3, 443 (1982)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Geib, H., Hisgen, B., Pschorn, U., Ringsdorf, H., Spiess, H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 104, 917 (1982)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Tal'roze, R. V., Sinitzyn, V. V., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Polymer Bulletin 6, 309 (1982)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Tal'roze, R. V.: Abstracts of the first All-Union Symposium on Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Suzdal, USSR, 1982, p. 6Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Zhurnal Vsesoysnogo Khimicheskogo Obshestva Mendeleeva 28, 165, 1983Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Tsvetkov, V. N., Rjumtsev, E. I., Shtennikova, I. N.: in Liquid crystalline order in polymers (Ed. Blumstein, A.), Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, London, 1978, p. 43Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Tsvetkov, V. N., Shtennikova, I. N.: Abstracts of the first All-Union Symposium on liquid crystalline polymers, Suzdal, USSR, p. 7, 1982Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Burshtein, L. L.: Dissertation for the Doctor of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, 1982Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Anufrieva, E. V., Gotlib, Y. Ya.: Advances in Polymer Sciences, Springer-Verlag, v. 40, p. 1, 1981Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Pautov, V. D.: Dissertation for the Candidate of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, 1978Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Tsvetkov, V. N.: Vysokomol. Soedin. 4, 894 (1962); 7, 1468 (1965); Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 165, 360 (1965)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Tsvetkov, V. N., Andreeva, L. N., Korneeva, E. V., Lavrenko, P. N.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 205, 895 (1972)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Andreeva, L. N., Gorbunov, A. A., Didenko, S. A., Korneeva, E. V., Lavrenko, P. N., Platé, N. A., Shibaev, V. P.: Vysokomol. Soedin 15, 209 (1973)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Tsvetkov, V. N., Rjumtsev, E. I., Konstantinov, I. I., Amerik, Yu. B., Krentsel, B. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 14, 67 (1972)Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Tsvetkov, V. N., Rjumtsev, E. I., Shtennikova, I. N., Konstantinov, I. I., Amerik, Yu. B., Krentsel, B. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 15, 2270 (1973)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Rjumtsev, E. I., Shtennikova, I. N., Pogodina, N. V., Kolbina, G. F., Konstantinov, I. I., Amerik, Yu. B., Vysokomol. Soedin. A 18, 439 (1976)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pogodina, N. V., Tsvetkov, V. N., Kolomiez, I. P.: Abstracts of the fourth International liquid crystal Conference of Socialist countries, Tbilisi, USSR, 1981, v. II, p. 203Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Shtennikova, I. N., Peker, T. V., Kolbina, G. F., Bushin, S. V., Korneeva, E. V.: Abstracts of the fourth International liquid crystal Conference of Socialist countries, Tbilisi, USSR, 1981, v. II, p. 227Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Agranovich, I. M., Pautov, V. D., Anufrieva, E. V., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Siedin. A 20, 2601 (1978)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Pautov, V. D., Bronich, T. K., Shelukhina, G. D., Kasaikin, V. A., Platé, N. A.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 256, 1435 (1981)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Anufrieva, E. V., Pautov, V. D., Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 24, 825 (1982)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kasaikin, V. A., Freidzon, Ya. S., Makhaeva, E. E.: Abstracts of the fourth international liquid crystal Conference of Socialist countries, Tbilisi, 1981, v. II, p. 179Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Smolyansky, A. L., Shibaev, V. P.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 21, 2221 (1979)Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A., Smolyansky, A. L., Voloskov, A. Ya.: Makromol. Chem. 181, 1393 (1980)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Borisova, T. I., Burshtein, L. L., Stepanova, T. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P.: Vysokomolek. Soedin. B 19, 553 (1977)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Borisova, T. I., Burshtein, L. L., Stepanova, T. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Kharitonov, A. V., Shibaev, V. P.: Vysokomol. Soedin. B 24, 451 (1982)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Borisova, T. I., Burshtein, L. L., Stepanova, T. P., Freidzon, Ya. S., Shibaev, V. P., Platé, N. A.: Vysokomol. Soedin A 24, 1103 (1982)Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Grosberg, A. Yu.: Vysokomol. Soedin. A 22, 96 (1980)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Finkelmann, H., Lühmann, B., Rehage, G.: Colloid and Polymer Sci. 260, 56 (1982)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valery P. Shibaev
    • 1
  • Nicolai A. Platé
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMoscow State UniversityMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations