Advertisement

The effectiveness of interventions for children with autism

  • P. Howlin

Summary

Over the past 50 years very many different treatments have been promoted as bringing about significant improvements, or even cures, for children with autism. However, few interventions involve controlled studies of any kind; randomised control trials are virtually non-existent and when appropriate research methodology has been applied the results are generally far from positive. Recent research suggests that the most effective results stem from early intensive behavioural interventions. Although many questions remain concerning the optimal age at which treatment should begin, the intensity of treatment and the many other variables that may affect outcome, there is growing evidence of general strategies that can be effective in ameliorating the problems associated with autism.

Keywords

Autistic Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Autistic Child Asperger Syndrome Pervasive Developmental Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics (1998) Auditory integration training and facilitated communication for autism. Pediatrics 102: 431–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association (1994) Resolution on facilitated communication. August 1994Google Scholar
  3. Anderson SR, Avery DL, DiPietro EK, Edwards GL, Christian WP (1987) Intensive home-based early intervention with autistic children. Educ Treat Child 10: 352–366Google Scholar
  4. Asperger H (1944) Autistic psychopathy in childhood (translated and annotated by editor). In: Frith U (ed) (1991) Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. Autism Network for Dietary Intervention (www.autismndi.com)Google Scholar
  6. Ayres JA (1979) Sensory integration and the child. Western Psychology Service, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura A (1969) Principles of behavior modification. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron-Cohen S (2002) Mind reading — the interactive guide to emotions. User guide and resource pack. University of Cambridge, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauminger N (2002) The facilitation of social-emotional understanding and social interaction in high-functioning children with autism: intervention outcomes. J Autism Dev Disord 32:283–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernard-Opitz V, Sriram N, Sapuan S (1999) Enhancing vocal limitations in children with autism using the IBM Speech Viewer. Autism: Int J Res Pract 3: 131–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bettleheim B (1967) The empty fortress: infantile autism and the birth of the self. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Biklen D (1990) Communication unbound: autism and praxis. Harvard Educ Rev 60: 291–315Google Scholar
  13. Birnbrauer JS, Leach DJ (1993) The Murdoch early intervention program after 2 years. Behav Change 10: 63–74Google Scholar
  14. Boatman M, Szurek S (1960) A clinical study of childhood schizophrenia. In: Jackson D (ed) The etiology of schizophrenia. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Bondy A, Frost L (1996) Educational approaches in pre-school: behavior techniques in a public school setting. In: Schopler E, Mesibov GB (eds) Learning and cognition in autism. Plenum Press, New York, pp 311–334Google Scholar
  16. Bosseler A, Massaro DW (2003) Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 33: 653–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Butera G, Haywood HC (1995) Cognitive education of young children with autism: an application of Bright Start. In: Schopler E, Mesibov G (eds) Learning and cognition in autism. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Campbell M (1978) Pharmacotherapy. In: Rutter M, Schopler E (eds) Autism: a reappraisal of concepts and treatment. Plenum Press, New York, pp 337–355Google Scholar
  19. Campbell M, Schopler E, Cueva JE, Hallin A (1996) Treatment of autistic disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35: 134–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Charlop-Christy MH, Carpenter M, LeBlanc LA, Kellett K (2002) Using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition speech social-communicative behavior and problembehavior. J Appl Behav Analy 35: 213–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummins RA (1988) The neurologically impaired child: Doman-Delacato techniques reappraisal. Croom Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Dawson G, Osterling J (1997) Early intervention in autism. In: Guralnick M (ed) The effectiveness of early intervention. Brookes Publishing Co, Baltimore, pp 307–326Google Scholar
  23. Dawson G, Watling R (2000) Interventions to facilitate auditory visual and motor integration in autism: a review of the evidence. J Autism Dev Disord 30: 415–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Delacato CH (1974) The ultimate stranger: the autistic child. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunlap G, Fox L (1999) A demonstration of behavioral support for young children with autism. J Positive Behav Intervent 1: 77–87Google Scholar
  26. Durand VM, Merges E (2001) Functional communication training: a contemporary behavior analytic intervention for problem behavior. Focus Autism Dev Disord 16: 110–119Google Scholar
  27. Elliott RO, Dobbin AR, Rose GD, Soper HV (1994) Vigorous aerobic exercise versus general motor training: effects on maladaptive and stereotypic behavior of adults with autism and mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord 25: 565–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Esch BE, Carr JE (2004) Secretin as a treatment for autism: a review of the evidence. J Autism Dev Disord 34: 543–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fenske EC, Zalenki S, Krantz PJ, McClannahan LE (1985) Age at intervention and treatment outcome for autistic children in a comprehensive intervention program. Anal Intervent Dev Disabil 5: 49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Findling RL, Maxwell K, Scotese-Wojtila L, Husang J, Yamashita T, Wiznitzer M (1997) High-dose pyridoxine and magnesium administration in children with autistic disorder: An absence of salutary effects in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Autism Dev Disabil 27: 467–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gabriels RL, Hill DE (2001) Autism — from research to individualized practice. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London and PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  32. Gilchrist A, Green J, Cox A, Rutter M, Le Couteur A (2001) Development and current functioning in adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: a comparative study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42: 227–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldfarb W (1961) Growth and change of schizophrenic children. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Green G (1994) The quality of the evidence. In: Shane HC (ed) Facilitated communication: the clinical and social phenomenon. Singular Press, San Diego, pp 157–226Google Scholar
  35. Greenspan SI (1998) A developmental approach to problems in relating and communicating in autistic spectrum disorders and related syndromes. Spotlight Topics Dev Disabil 1: 1–6Google Scholar
  36. Greenspan SJ, Wieder S (1999) A functional developmental approach to autism spectrum disorders. J Assoc Persons Severe Handicap 3: 147–161Google Scholar
  37. Gresham FM, Macmillan DL (1998) Early Intervention Project: can its claims be substantiated and replicated. J Autism Dev Disord 28: 5–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gray CA (1995) Teaching children with autism to ‘read’ social situations In: Quill KA (ed) Teaching children with autism: strategies to enhance communication and socialization. Delmar, New York, pp 219–242Google Scholar
  39. Gringras P (2000) Practical paediatric psychopharmacological prescribing in autism: the potential and the pitfalls. Autism: Int J Res Pract 4: 229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harris SL, Handleman JS (2000) Age and IQ at intake as predictors of placement for young children with autism: a four-to six-year follow-up. J Autism Dev Disord 30: 137–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harris SL, Handleman JS, Belchic J, Glasberg B (1995) The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales for young children with autism. Spec Services Schools 10: 45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hobson P (2002) The cradle of thought. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Horvath K, Stefanalos G, Sokolski KN, Wachtel R, Nabors L, Tildon JT (1998) Improved social and language skills after secretin administration in patients with autistic spectrum disorders. J Assoc Acad Minority Phys 9: 9–15Google Scholar
  44. Howlin P (1998) Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome: guide for practitioners and carers. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Howlin P (2003) Outcome in high-functioning adults with autism with and without early language delays: implications for the differentiation between autism and Asperger syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord 33: 3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Howlin P (2004) Autism and Asperger syndrome: preparing for adulthood, 2nd ed. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Howlin P, Asgharian A (1999) The diagnosis of autism and Asperger syndrome: findings from a survey of 770 families. Dev Med Child Neurol 41: 834–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Howlin P, Rutter M (1987) The consequences of language delay for other aspects of development. In: Yule W, Rutter M (eds) Language development and disorders. Mac Keith Press, Oxford, pp 271–294Google Scholar
  49. Howlin P, Baron-Cohen S, Hadwin J, Swettenham J (1998) Teaching children with autism to mindread. A practical manual for parents and teachers. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  50. Howlin P, Goode S, Hutton J, Rutter M (2004) Adult outcome for children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45: 212–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Irlen H (1995) Viewing the world through rose tinted glasses. Communication 29: 8–9Google Scholar
  52. Jacobson JW, Mulick JA, Schwartz AA (1995) A history of facilitated communication: science pseudoscience and anti-science. Am Psychol 50: 750–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jones RSP, McCaughey RE (1992) Gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis. A critical review. J Appl Behav Anal 25: 853–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kanner J (1951) The conception of wholes and parts in early infantile autism. Am J Psychiatry 108: 23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kanner L (1943) Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child 2: 217–250Google Scholar
  56. Kanner L (1973) Childhood psychosis: initial studies and new insights. Winston/Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Kaufman BN (1977) To love is to be happy with. Fawcett Crest, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Kaufman BN (1981) A miracle to believe in. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Kaufman BN (1997) Son rise: the miracle continues. Option Indigo Press, Sheffield MAGoogle Scholar
  60. Kitahara K (1983) Daily life therapy, vol 1. Musashino Higashi Gakuen School, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  61. Kitahara K (1984a, b) Daily life therapy, vol 2, 3. Musashino Higashi Gakuen, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  62. Koegel LK (2000) Interventions to facilitate communication in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 30: 383–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Koegel RL, Koegel LK (1995) Teaching children with autism: strategies for initiating positive interactions and improving learning opportunities. Brookes, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  64. Koegel LK, Koegel RL, Harrower JK, Carter CM (1999) Pivotal response intervention. I. Overview of approach. J Assoc Persons Severe Handicaps 24: 174–185Google Scholar
  65. Koegel RL, Koegel LK, McNerney EK (2001) Pivotal areas in intervention for autism. J Clin Child Psychol 30: 19–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kravits TE, Kamps DM, Kemmerer K, Potucek J (2002) Brief report: increasing communication skills for an elementary-aged student with autism using the picture exchange communication system. J Autism Dev Disord 32: 225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Le Couteur A (2003) National Autism Plan for Children (NAPC). Produced by NIASA National Initiative for Autism Screening and Assessment. National Autistic Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  68. Lord C (1995) Facilitating social inclusion: examples from peer intervention programs. In: Schopler E, Mesibov G (eds) Learning and cognition in autism. Plenum Press, New York, pp 221–239Google Scholar
  69. Lord C (2000) Commentary: Achievements and future directions for intervention research in communication and autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 306: 393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lovaas OI (1993) The development of a treatment — research project for developmentally disabled and autistic children. J Appl Behav Anal 26: 617–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lovaas OI (1996) The UCLA young autism model of service delivery. In: Maurice C (ed) Behavioral intervention for young children with autism. Pro-Ed, Austin, pp 241–250Google Scholar
  72. Magiati I, Howlin P (2001) Monitoring the progress of preschool children with autism enrolled in early intervention programmes. Autism: Int J Res Pract 5: 399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Magiati I, Howlin P (2003) A pilot evaluation study of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for children with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism: Int J Res Pract 7: 297–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Maine Administrators of Services for Children with Disabilities (MADSEC) (2000) Autism Task Force ReportGoogle Scholar
  75. Marcus LM, Kunce LJ, Schopler E (1997) Working with families. In: Cohen D, Volkmar F (eds) Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 631–649Google Scholar
  76. Mawhood L, Howlin P, Rutter M (2000) Autism and developmental receptive language disorder — a follow-up comparison in early adult life. I. Cognitive and language outcomes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41: 547–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McDougle CJ (1997) Psychopharmacology. In: Cohen DJ, Volkmar FR (eds) Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 2nd edn. JohnWiley, New York, pp 707–729Google Scholar
  78. McGee JJ (1985) Gentle teaching. Mental Handicap in New Zealand 9: 13–24Google Scholar
  79. McGee JJ, Menolascino PE, Hobbs DC, Menousek PE (1987) Gentle teaching: a non-aversive approach to helping persons with mental retardation. Human Science Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Mesibov GB, Schopler E, Schaffer B, Michal N (1989) Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale with autistic adolescents and adults. JAm Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28: 538–541Google Scholar
  81. Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G (2004) Gluten-and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library Issue 4. John Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  82. Minshew NJ, Sweeney JA, Bauman ML (1997) Neurological aspects of autism. In: Cohen DJ, Volkmar FR (eds) Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 2nd edn. John Wiley, New York, pp 344–369Google Scholar
  83. Moore M, Calvert S (2000) Brief report: Vocabulary acquisition for children with autism: teacher or computer instruction. J Autism Dev Disord 30: 359–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mostert MP (2001) Facilitated communication since 1995: a review of published studies. J Autism Dev Disord 31: 287–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. National Autistic Society (1997) Approaches to autism. National Autistic Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  86. National Research Council (2001) Educating children with autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  87. New York Health State Department (1999) Clinical practice guidelines for assessment and intervention for young children (age 0–3 years) with autism/pervasive developmental disorder. Early Intervention Program, New York State Department of HealthGoogle Scholar
  88. Nye C, Brice A (2003) Combined vitamin B6-magnesium treatment in autism spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4 CD003497Google Scholar
  89. O’Gorman G (1970) The nature of childhood autism, 2nd edn. Butterworth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  90. Ozonoff S, Cathcart K (1998) Effectiveness of a home program intervention for young children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 28: 25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Panerai S, Ferrante L, Zingale M(2002) Benefits of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) programme as compared with a nonspecific approach. J Intellect Disabil Res 46: 318–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Piven J, Harper J, Palmer P, Arndt S (1996) Course of behavioral change in autism: a retrospective study of high-IQ adolescents and adults. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 35: 523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Posey DJ, McDougle CJ (2001) The pharmacotherapy of target symptoms associated with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. Harvard Rev Psychiatry 8: 45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Prekop JL (1984) Zur Festhalte Therapie bei Autistischen Kindern. Der Kinderarzt 15: 798–802Google Scholar
  95. Prizant BM, Rubin E (1999) Contemporary issues in interventions for autism spectrum disorders: a commentary. J Assoc Persons with Severe Handicaps 24: 199–208Google Scholar
  96. Prizant B, Schuler A, Wetherby A, Rydell P (1997) Enhancing language and communication development: language approaches. In: Cohen D, Volkmar F (eds) Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 572–605Google Scholar
  97. Richer J, Zappella M (1989) Changing social behaviour. The Place of Holding Communication 23: 35–39Google Scholar
  98. Rimland B (1988) Physical exercise and autism. Autism Res Rev Int 2: 3Google Scholar
  99. Rimland B (1995) Studies of high dose vitamin B6 in autistic children and adults — 1965–1994. Autism Research Institute, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  100. Rimland B (1998) The use of secretin in autism: some preliminary answers. Autism Res Rev Int 12: 3Google Scholar
  101. Rimland B (2000) “Garbage science” brick walls crossword puzzles and mercury. Autism Res Rev Int 14: 3Google Scholar
  102. Rimland B, Edelson SM (1994) The effects of Auditory Integration Training on autism. Am J Speech-Language Pathol 5: 16–24Google Scholar
  103. Rimland B, Edelson SM (1995) Brief report: A pilot study of Auditory Integration Training in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 25: 61–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rogers SJ (1996) Brief Report: Early intervention in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 26: 243–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rogers SJ (1998) Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with autism. J Clin Child Psychol 27: 168–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rogers SJ (2000) Interventions that facilitate socialization in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 30: 399–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rogers SJ, Ozonoff S, Maslin-Cole C (1987) An effective procedure for training early special education teams to implement a model program. J Division Early Childhood 11: 180–188Google Scholar
  108. Rosenthal-Malek A, Mitchell S (1997) The effects of exercise on the self-stimulatory behaviours and positive responding of adolescents with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 27: 203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rutter M (1972) Childhood schizophrenia reconsidered. J Autism Childhood Schizophr 2: 315–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rutter M, Bartak L (1973) Special educational treatment of autistic children: a comparative study. II. Follow-up findings and implications for services. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 14: 241–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sansosti FJ, Powell-Smith KA, Kincaid D (2004) A research synthesis of social story interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 19: 194–204Google Scholar
  112. Schopler E (1997) Implementation of TEACCH philosophy. In: Cohen DJ, Volkmar FR (eds) Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 2nd edn. JohnWiley, New York, pp 767–798Google Scholar
  113. Schopler E, Mesibov GB (eds) (1995) Learning and cognition in autism. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  114. Schreibman L (2000) Intensive behavioral/psychoeducational treatments for autism: research needs and future directions. J Autism Dev Disord 30: 373–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Seltzer MM, Krauss MW, Shattuck PT, Orsmond G, Swe A, Lord C (2003) The symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in adolescence and adulthood. J Autism Dev Disord 33: 565–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shea V (2004) A perspective on the research literature related to early intensive behavioural intervention (Lovaas) for young children with autism. Autism 8: 349–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sheinkopf SJ, Siegel B (1998) Home-based behavioral treatment for young children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 28: 15–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shields J (2001) The NAS Early Bird Programme: partnership with parents in early intervention. Autism: Int J Res Pract 5: 49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Simpson RL, Myles BS (1993) Successful integration of children and youth with autism in mainstreamed settings. Focus Autistic Behav 7: 1–13Google Scholar
  120. Sinha Y, Silove N, Wheeler D, Williams K (2004) Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1 CD 003681Google Scholar
  121. Stehli A (1992) The sound of a miracle: a child’s triumph over autism. Fourth Estate Publications, USAGoogle Scholar
  122. Stone WL, Yoder PJ (2001) Predicting spoken language level in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism: Int J Res Pract 5: 341–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Strain PS, Hoyson M (2000) On the need for longitudinal intensive social skill intervention: LEAP follow-up outcomes for children as a case in point. Topics Early Childhood Spec Educ 20: 116–122Google Scholar
  124. Sussman F (1999) More than words. The Hanen Program, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  125. Szurek S, Berlin I (1956) Elements of psychotherapeutics with the schizophrenic child and his parents. Psychiatry 19: 1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. The Times (July 26th 2000) Law Report: The Family Division In re D (a child) Evidence: Facilitated CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  127. Tincani M (2004) Comparing the picture exchange communication system and sign language training for children with autism. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 19: 152–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tjus T, Heimann M, Nelson KE (2001) Interaction patterns between children and their teachers when using a specific multimedia and communication strategy: observations from children with autism and mixed handicaps. Autism: Int J Res Pract 5: 175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Trevarthen C, Aitken K, Papoudi D, Roberts JM (1998) Children with autism: diagnosis and interventions to meet their needs. Jessica Kingsley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  130. Ullman LP, Krasner L (eds) (1965) Case studies in behaviour modification. Holt Rinehart and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  131. Welch M (1988) Holding time. Century Hutchinson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  132. Wing L (1981) Asperger’s syndrome: a clinical account. Psychol Med 11: 115–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zappella M (1988) Il legame genitore-bambino come base della terapia dei bambini autistici. In: De Giacomo P, Scacella M (eds) Terapie dell’autismo. Ed Scientifi, BariGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Howlin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community Health SciencesSt. George’s Hospital Medical SchoolTooting, LondonUK

Personalised recommendations