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Pharmacotherapy of Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Thomas M. KapellenEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series

Abstract

Insulin treatment in children and adolescents with autoimmune type 1 diabetes has changed tremendously in the last 20 years with the knowledge of DCCT trial regarding near-normal glucose levels on the micro- and macrovascular outcome. Intensified insulin therapy is now standard of care. Carb counting however was introduced systematically only recently in several countries. In industrialized countries most patients in this age group are treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin injections. Nowadays this is combined with continuous subcutaneous glucose measurement commencing sensor-augmented pump therapy. Predictive low glucose suspend reduces the frequency of hypoglycemic events. Still not available for children is a commercially available closed loop system. However, treatment goals are still frequently not reached especially in the group of adolescents. Therefore several additive drugs are tested to improve treatment results. There are new insulins with faster and longer action profile in the pipeline to better mimic physiologic insulin profiles. Smart insulins may be able to mimic reaction on blood sugar levels. The broad facet of treatment modalities helps pediatric diabetes teams to individualize therapy and so improve patients’ health-related quality of life.

Keywords

Adolescents Children CSII Insulin treatment Long-acting insulin Rapid-acting insulin Sensor-augmented pump therapy 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of LeipzigLeipzigGermany

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