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Presynaptic Ethanol Actions: Potential Roles in Ethanol Seeking

  • David M. LovingerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 248)

Abstract

Ethanol produces intoxication through actions on numerous molecular and cellular targets. Adaptations involving these and other targets contribute to chronic drug actions that underlie continued and problematic drinking. Among the mechanisms involved in these ethanol actions are alterations in presynaptic mechanisms of synaptic transmission, including presynaptic protein function and excitation-secretion coupling. At synapses in the central nervous system (CNS), excitation-secretion coupling involves ion channel activation followed by vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release. These mechanisms are altered by presynaptic neurotransmitter receptors and prominently by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Studies over the last 20–25 years have revealed that acute ethanol exposure alters neurotransmitter secretion, with especially robust effects on synapses that use the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Intracellular signaling pathways involving second messengers such as cyclic AMP and calcium are implicated in these acute ethanol actions. Ethanol-induced release of neuropeptides and small molecule neurotransmitters that act on presynaptic GPCRs also contribute to presynaptic potentiation at synapses in the amygdala and hippocampus and inhibition of GABA release in the striatum. Prolonged exposure to ethanol alters neurotransmitter release at many CNS GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses, and changes in GPCR function are implicated in many of these neuroadaptations. These presynaptic neuroadaptations appear to involve compensation for acute drug effects at some synapses, but “allostatic” effects that result in long-term resetting of synaptic efficacy occur at others. Current investigations are determining how presynaptic neuroadaptations contribute to behavioral changes at different stages of alcohol drinking, with increasing focus on circuit adaptations underlying these behaviors. This chapter will discuss the acute and chronic presynaptic effects of ethanol in the CNS, as well as some of the consequences of these effects in amygdala and corticostriatal circuits that are related to excessive seeking/drinking and ethanol abuse.

Keywords

Addiction Alcohol Amygdala Cortex Endocannabinoid GABA Glutamate Long-term depression Striatum Synaptic plasticity Synaptic transmission 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, project ZIA AA000407.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological ResearchNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and AlcoholismBethesdaUSA

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