Allergy, Histamine and Antihistamines
This chapter concentrates on the role in allergic disease of histamine acting on H1-receptors. It is clear that allergy has its roots in the primary parasite rejection response in which mast cell-derived histamine creates an immediate hostile environment and eosinophils are recruited for killing. This pattern is seen in allergic rhinitis where the early events of mucus production and nasal itching are primarily histamine mediated whereas nasal blockage is secondary to eosinophil infiltration and activation. In asthma, the role of histamine is less clear. Urticaria is characterized by mast cell driven pruritic wheal and flare-type skin reactions that usually persist for less than 24 h. Although the events leading to mast cell degranulation have been unclear for many years, it is now becoming evident that urticaria has an autoimmune basis. Finally, the properties of first- and second-generation H1-antihistamines and their role in allergic is discussed.
KeywordsAllergy Asthma H1-antihistamines Parasitology allergic rhinitis Urticaria
- Church DS, Church MK, Scadding GK (2016) Allergic rhinitis: impact, diagnosis, treatment and management. Clin Pharmacist 8:249–255Google Scholar
- Coombs RRA, Gell PGH (1968) Classification of allergic reactions responsible for drug hypersensitivity reactions. In: Coombs RRA, Gell PGH (eds) Clinical aspects of immunology, 2nd edn. Davis, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
- Kolkhir P, Church MK, Weller K et al (2016) Autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria: what we know and what we don’t know. J Allergy Clin Immunol (in press)Google Scholar
- Maurer M, Altrichter S, Bieber T et al (2011a) Efficacy and safety of omalizumab in patients with chronic urticaria who exhibit IgE against thyroperoxidase. J Allergy Clin Immunol 128(202–209):e5Google Scholar
- Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M (2008) Janeway’s immunobiology, 7th edn. Garland Science, AbingdonGoogle Scholar