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Histidine Decarboxylase Knockout Mice as a Model of the Pathophysiology of Tourette Syndrome and Related Conditions

  • Christopher Pittenger
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 241)

Abstract

While the normal functions of histamine (HA) in the central nervous system have gradually come into focus over the past 30 years, the relationship of abnormalities in neurotransmitter HA to human disease has been slower to emerge. New insight came with the 2010 description of a rare nonsense mutation in the biosynthetic enzyme histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) that was associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) and related conditions in a single family pedigree. Subsequent genetic work has provided further support for abnormalities of HA signaling in sporadic TS. As a result of this genetic work, Hdc knockout mice, which were generated more than 15 years ago, have been reexamined as a model of the pathophysiology of TS and related conditions. Parallel work in these KO mice and in human carriers of the Hdc mutation has revealed abnormalities in the basal ganglia system and its modulation by dopamine (DA) and has confirmed the etiologic, face, and predictive validity of the model. The Hdc-KO model thus serves as a unique platform to probe the pathophysiology of TS and related conditions, and to generate specific hypotheses for subsequent testing in humans. This chapter summarizes the development and validation of this model and recent and ongoing work using it to further investigate pathophysiological changes that may contribute to these disorders.

Keywords

Animal model Histamine Histidine decarboxylase Obsessive–compulsive disorder Tic disorders Tourette syndrome 

Abbreviations

11C-GSK189254

An H3 receptor PET tracer

11C-PBR28

A PET tracer that binds to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, PBR, a marker of activated microglia

11C-PK11195

A PET tracer that binds to activated microglia

ADHD

Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

Akt

Ak-thymoma protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B

ASD

Autism spectrum disorder

AZD5213

An H3R antagonist

C57Bl/6

C57 Black-6 inbred mouse line

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CNV

Copy number variation

D1R

Dopamine D1 receptor

D2R

Dopamine D2 receptor

DA

Dopamine

DARPP-32

Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein

dMSN

Direct/striatonigral pathway medium spiny neuron

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GPe

Globus pallidus, pars externa

GPi

Globus pallidus, pars interna

GSK3beta

Glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta

GWAS

Genome-wide association study

H1R

Histamine H1 receptor

H2R

Histamine H2 receptor

H3R

Histamine H3 receptor

H4R

Histamine H4 receptor

HA

Histamine

Hdc

Histidine decarboxylase gene

Hdc-KO

Histidine decarboxylase knockout mouse

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor 1

IL-1

Interleukin 1

iMSN

Indirect/striatopallidal pathway medium spiny neuron

JNJ5207852

An H3R receptor antagonist

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

MSN

Medium spiny neuron

OCD

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

PANDAS

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with Streptococcus

PET

Positron emission tomography

PHNO

(+)-4-Propyl-9-hydroxynaphthoxazine

PPI

Prepulse inhibition

RAMH

R-aminomethylhistamine, an H4R agonist

SMA

Supplementary motor area

SNc

Substantia nigra, pars compacta

SNr

Substantia nigra, pars reticulata

STN

Subthalamic nucleus

Th1

Type-1 T-helper cell

TS

Tourette syndrome

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, Yale Child Study Center, and Interdepartmental Neuroscience ProgramYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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