IAG 150 Years pp 643-649 | Cite as

Combined GPS, BeiDou, Galileo, and QZSS Single-Epoch, Single-Frequency RTK Performance Analysis

  • Robert OdolinskiEmail author
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
  • Dennis Odijk
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 143)


In this contribution we will focus on instantaneous (single-epoch) single-baseline Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) combining four CDMA satellite systems. We will combine the Chinese BeiDou, the European Galileo, the American GPS and the Japanese QZSS system. To further strengthen the underlying model and maximize the redundancy, attention will be given to overlapping frequencies between the systems. With calibrated Inter System Biases (ISBs), it enables one to use a common pivot satellite between the respective systems when parameterizing the double-differenced ambiguities. We make use of the LAMBDA method for ambiguity resolution, and the performance is evaluated by ambiguity success-rates and by comparing the estimated positions to very precise benchmark coordinates. This will be based on various elevation cut-off angles so as to mimic conditions with obstructed satellite visibility (such as in urban canyons). It will be shown by how much the increased strength of the combined models allow for improved ambiguity resolution performance and positioning robustness over the single-systems.


BeiDou Cut-off angle Galileo GPS Multi-GNSS QZSS Real time kinematic 



This work has been executed in the framework of the Positioning Program Project 1.01 “New carrier phase processing strategies for achieving precise and reliable multi-satellite, multi-frequency GNSS/RNSS positioning in Australia” of the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI). The second author is the recipient of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellowship (project number FF0883188). All this support is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Odolinski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dennis Odijk
    • 1
  1. 1.GNSS Research CentreCurtin University of TechnologyBentleyAustralia
  2. 2.Mathematical Geodesy and PositioningDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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