Structure Formation of Polymeric Building Blocks: Complex Polymer Architectures

  • Kurt Binder
  • Hans-Jürgen Butt
  • George Floudas
  • Holger Frey
  • Hsiao-Ping Hsu
  • Katharina Landfester
  • Ute Kolb
  • Angelika Kühnle
  • Michael Maskos
  • Klaus Müllen
  • Wolfgang Paul
  • Manfred Schmidt
  • Hans Wolfgang Spiess
  • Peter Virnau
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter describes macromolecules with a complex structure, their defined aggregation in solution, their adsorption to surfaces, and their possible aggregation on surfaces. The term “complex structure” implies that the macromolecules show different, distinct structural elements or building blocks on a supra-atomic length scale. Key to understanding the complex structure of macromolecules, their aggregation, and adsorption to surfaces are intra- and intermolecular interactions such as van der Waals, electrostatic, π–π interactions, and hydrogen bonds.

Keywords

Biopolymers Conformation Copolymers Cylindrical brush Dendrimer Liquid crystal NMR spectroscopy Organic electronics Polyelectrolyte Polymer Self-assembly 

Abbreviations

α

Degree of dissociation

δ

Shell thickness of nanocapsule

ε

Energy of interaction between monomers

λ

Wave length

η

Viscosity

ν

Exponent characterizing end-to-end distance

ρ

Density of polymers or particles in solution

σ

Grafting density of side chains to backbone

χ

Flory–Huggins interaction parameter

λB

Bjerrum length

σcalc

Calculated conductivity

σDC

DC-conductivity of an ion-containing medium

σexp

Measured DC-conductivity

D+, D

Calculated diffusion coefficient of the free cation/anion

D+exp, Dexp

Diffusion coefficient as measured by NMR

<zb>

Average distance of a backbone monomer of an adsorbed bottle brush from the surface

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

\( {\overrightarrow{l}}_{\mathrm{s}} \)

Bond vectors are grafted to the backbone

BPCPPCA

2-(4-Bromophenyl)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)pyridine-4-carboxylic acid

BPDCA

Biphenyl-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid

BTA

Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides

d

Exponent describing kinetics of aggregation

D

Diameter of drop

D0

Diffusion coefficient of the neutral complex

DCBA

2,5-Dichloro benzoic acid

DEER

Double electron–electron resonance

Dexp

Experimental diffusion coefficient

DIBA

2,5-Diiodo benzoic acid

DISA

3,5-Diiodo salicylic acid

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

DMF

N,N-Dimethylformamide

DQNMR

Double-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

DS

Dielectric spectroscopy

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

e

Elementary charge

\( {\overrightarrow{R}}_{\mathrm{e},\mathrm{b}} \)

End-to-end vector of the backbone

\( {\overrightarrow{R}}_{\mathrm{e}} \)

End-to-end vector of side chain

\( {\overrightarrow{l}}_{\mathrm{b}} \)

Effective bond vectors of main chain

EC

Coulomb attractive energy

EPR

Electron paramagnetic resonance

Eσ

Activation energy for ion transport

FCS

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

HBC

Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronenes

I

Scattering intensity

IBA

4-Iodo benzoic acid

kB

Boltzmann constant

L

Contour length

L0

Thickness of block copolymer lamellar

LC

Liquid crystalline

ld

Domain size

LED

Light emitting diode

lk

Kuhn length

lm

Length per repeat unit of the main chain

lp

Persistence length

M0

Molar mass of one repeat unit in the main chain

MAO

Methylaluminoxanes

MAS

Magic angle spinning

MFA

Methyl formamide

ML

Molar mass per length of main chain

Mnsc

Number-average side chain molar mass

Msc

Side chain molar mass

N

Degree of polymerization

Nb

Number of effective monomers in main chain

NICS

Nucleus independent chemical shift

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

NOE

Nuclear Overhauser effect

Ns

Number of effective monomers in side chain

OPBA

Oligo(p-benzamides)

P

Main chain degree of polymerization

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PAMAM

Poly(amido amine)

PBI

Perylene bisdiimide

PBLG

Poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate)

PDI

Perylene diimide

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEI

Poly(ethylene imine)

PEO

Poly(ethylene oxide)

pi

Number density of the ith type of charge carrier

PLL

Poly-l-lysine

PLP

Poly(l-proline)

PMA

Polymethacrylate

PMMA

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

PPD

Polyphenylene dendrimer

ps

Total ion concentration

PS

Polystyrene

Psc

Side chain degree of polymerization

PSS

Poly(styrene sulfonate)

PVP

Poly-2-vinylpyridinium

Pw

Weight average degree of polymerization

q

Scattering vector

QD

Quantum dot

qi

Charge of the ith type of charge carrier

rc

Distance separating a point-like cation from a point-like anion

Rc

Core radius of a spherical brush

Rcs

Cross-sectional radius

Rg

Radius of gyration

Rgc

Cross-sectional radius of gyration of brush polymer

Rh

Hydrodynamic radius

S

Dynamic order parameter

s

Number of bonds along the backbone

SANS

Small angle neutron scattering

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

sblob

Number of monomers per blob

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

SLS

Static light scattering

T

Temperature

t

Time

TBA+

Tetrabutylammonium cation

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

Tg

Glass transition temperature

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

TΘ

Theta temperature

W(r)

Potential of mean force for two particles at distance r

WAXS

Wide-angle X-ray scattering

xanion

Mole fraction of anionic charges

XPS

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Z+/Z

Charge ratio

ε0

Permittivity of free space

εr

Dielectric permittivity

μi

Mobility of the ith type of charge carrier

σ0

Limiting conductivity

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Binder
    • 1
  • Hans-Jürgen Butt
    • 2
  • George Floudas
    • 3
  • Holger Frey
    • 4
  • Hsiao-Ping Hsu
    • 1
  • Katharina Landfester
    • 2
  • Ute Kolb
    • 5
  • Angelika Kühnle
    • 5
  • Michael Maskos
    • 5
    • 6
  • Klaus Müllen
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Paul
    • 7
  • Manfred Schmidt
    • 5
  • Hans Wolfgang Spiess
    • 2
  • Peter Virnau
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PhysicsJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for Polymer ResearchMainzGermany
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece
  4. 4.Institute of Organic ChemistryJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  5. 5.Institute for Physical ChemistryJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  6. 6.Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz IMMMainzGermany
  7. 7.Institute for PhysicsMartin Luther UniversitätHalleGermany

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