Silicone-Based Polymer Blends: An Overview of the Materials and Processes

  • Patrice Lucas
  • Jean-Jacques RobinEmail author
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 209)


Although extensive studies on copolymers have been carried out with a view to exploiting thecombined homopolymer properties, physical blends of polymers have warranted less attention. But as a resultof increased scientific and economic interest research in this challenging field has grown over the lasttwo decades. The unique properties of silicone polymers, due to their Si–O–Si backbone, includingtheir low Tg's, gives rise to some specific applications. However, it is their singular structure whichalso makes silicone polymers incompatible with most other macromolecules and limits their incorporationto low amounts. Bleeding and mechanical loss are observed at higher percentages. This overview is dividedinto three parts: the first covers silicone/polymer bicomponent blends with the silicone being either functionalizedor not. The second part describes the different ways to compatibilize the two phases of the silicon/polymerblend using copolymers which can be added as either preformed copolymers or synthesized in-situ. The efficiencyof the copolymers involved varies depending on their chemical structure and architecture. The final sectionis dedicated to the different methods of preparation of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) which arecommercially and industrially by far the most interesting. The relevant processes (extrusion, batch, casting,etc.) as well as the properties of the various resulting materials are also reviewed throughout the paper.

Compatibilization IPN Silicone/polymer blend 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Goldberg EP (1961) Resinous mixtures of polysiloxanes and polymers from carbonates of dihydric phenols. US Patent 2999835Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bostick EE, Jaquiss DBG (1973) Compatible polycarbonate-siloxane composition. US Patent 3751519, General Electric, US, p 2Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meyer RV, Dhein R, Fahnler F (1979) Polyamide blends with high impact strength, DE Patent 2734693Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hill DJT et al. (1996) Development of wear-resistant thermoplastic polyurethane by blending with poly(dimethyl siloxane). I. Physical properties. J Appl Poly Sci 61(10):1757–1766Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bremner T et al. (1997) Development of wear-resistant thermoplastic polyurethanes by blending with poly(dimethyl siloxane). II. A packing model. J Appl Poly Sci 65(5):939–950Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Damrongsakkul S, Sinweeruthai R, Higgins JS (2003) Processability and chemical resistance of the polymer blend of thermoplastic polyurethane and polydimethylsiloxane. Macromolecular Symposia. 7th Eur Symp Polymer Blends, Lyon-Villeurbanne, 27–29 May 2002, pp 411–419Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu S (1987) Formation of dispersed phase in incompatible polymer blends: interfacial and rheological effects. Poly Eng Sci 27(5):335–343Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maric M, Macosko CW (2002) Block copolymer compatibilizers for polystyrene/poly(dimethylsiloxane) blends. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 40(4):346–357Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chuai CZ et al. (2004) The effect of compatibilization and rheological properties of polystyrene and poly(dimethylsiloxane) on phase structure of polystyrene/poly(dimethylsiloxane) blends. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 42(5):898–913Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pötschke P, Paul DR (2003) Formation of co-continuous structures in melt-mixed immiscible polymer blends. J Macromol Sci Part C: Poly Rev C43(1):87–141Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Avgeropoulos GN et al. (1976) Heterogeneous blends of polymers. Rheology and morphology. Rubber Chem Technol 49:94Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miles IS, Zurek A (1988) Preparation, structure, and properties of two-phase co-continuous polymer blends. Poly Eng Sci 28:796Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jordhamo GM, Manson JA, Sperling LH (1986) Phase continuity and inversion in polymer blends and simultaneous interpenetrating networks. Poly Eng Sci 26:517Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paul DR, Barlow JW (1980) J Macromol Sci Part C: Poly Rev C18:109Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Utracki LA (1991) On the viscosity-concentration dependence of immiscible polymer blends. J Rheol 35(8):1615–1637Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anastasiadis SH, Gancarz I, Koberstein JT (1988) Interfacial tension of immiscible polymer blends: temperature and molecular weight dependence. Macromolecules 21(10):2980–2987Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    LeGrand DG, Gaines GL Jr (1969) Molecular weight dependence of polymer surface tension. J Colloid Interf Sci 31(2):162–167Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    LeGrand DG, Gaines GL Jr (1973) Surface tension of homologous series of liquids. J Colloid Interf Sci 42(1):181–184Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee MH et al. (2001) The effect of end groups on thermodynamics of immiscible polymer blends. 2. Cloud point curves. Polymer 42(21):9163–9172Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fleischer CA et al. (1993) The effect of end groups on thermodynamics of immiscible polymer blends. 1. Interfacial tension. Macromolecules 26(16):4172–4178Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Patterson HT, Hu KH, Grindstaff TH (1971) Measurement of interfacial and surface tensions in polymer systems. J Poly Sci, Polymer Symposia 34:31–43Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fleischer CA, Koberstein JT (1990) The effect of polymer end groups on the compatibility of immiscible polymer blends. Polymer Preprints (American Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry) 31(2):541–2Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Furukawa H, Shirahata A (1994) Polyamide resin composition, EP Patent 581224Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li XG, S H, Lai YH, Wee ATS (2000) Miscibility of carboxyl-containing polysiloxane/poly(vinylpyridine) blends. Polymer 41:6563–6571Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Belorgey G, Sauvet G (2000) Organosiloxane block and graft copolymers. In: Silicon-Containing Polymers. Kluwer, Rotterdam, pp 43–78Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yilgor I, McGrath JE (1988) Polysiloxane-containing copolymers: a survey of recent developments. In: Advances in Polymer Science 86 (Polysiloxane Copolm/Anionic Polym). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–86Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Macosko CW et al. (1996) Compatibilizers for melt blending: Premade block copolymers. Macromolecules 29(17):5590–5598Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cho D et al. (2000) Segregation dynamics of block copolymers to immiscible polymer blend interfaces. Macromolecules 33(14):5245–5251Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Biresaw G, Carriere CJ, Sammler RL (2003) Effect of temperature and molecular weight on the interfacial tension of PS/PDMS blends. Rheologica Acta 42(1–2):142–147Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leibler L (1988) Emulsifying effects of block copolymers in incompatible polymer blends. Makromol Chem, Marcomol Symp 16:1–17Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu W et al. (1995) Interfacial tension reduction in polystyrene/poly(dimethylsiloxane) blends by the addition of poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane). Macromolecules 28(15):5209–5214Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chuai C et al. (2004) Influence of diblock copolymer on the morphology and properties of polystyrene/poly(dimethylsiloxane) blends. J Appl Poly Sci 92(5):2747–2757Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Munoz PMP et al. (2002) Blends of high-density polyethylene with solid silicone additive. J Appl Poly Sci 83(11):2347–2354Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wagner M, Wolf BA (1993) Effect of block copolymers on the interfacial tension between two immiscible homopolymers. Polymer 34:1460–1464Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jorzik U, Wolf BA (1997) Reduction of the interfacial tension between poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(ethylene oxide) by block copolymers: Effects of molecular architecture and chemical composition. Macromolecules 30(16):4713–4718Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Khandpur AK et al. (1995) Compatibilizers for A/B blends: A-C-B triblock versus A-B diblock copolymers. Polyblends'95, SPE Regional Technical Conference on Polymer Alloys and Blends. Boucherville, Quebec, Oct 19–20, pp 88–96Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fayt R, Jerome R, Teyssie P (1989) Molecular design of multicomponent polymer systems. XIV Control of the mechanical properties of polyethylene-polystyrene blends by block copolymers. J Poly Sci Part B: Poly Phys 27(4):775–793Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Epstein BN (1977) US Patent 4172859Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Freluche M et al. (2006) Graft copolymers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and polyamide-6: Synthesis by reactive blending and characterization. Macromolecules 39:6905Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pernot H et al. (2002) Design and properties of co-continuous nanostructured polymers by reactive blending. Nat Mat 1:54Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Charoensirisomboon P et al. (2000) Polymer 41:5977Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Charoensirisomboon P et al. (1999) Polymer 40:6803Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Charoensirisomboon P, Inoue T, Weber M (2000) Polymer 41:4483Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Charoensirisomboon P, Inoue T, Weber M (2000) Polymer 41:6907Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Orr CA et al. (1997) Flow-induced reactive self-assembly. Macromolecules 30(4):1243–1246Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yin Z et al. (2001) Macromolecules 34:5132Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fleischer CA, Morales AR, Koberstein JT (1994) Interfacial modification through end group complexation in polymer blends. Macromolecules 27(2):379–85Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Moskala EJ et al. (1984) On the role of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in miscible polymer blends. Macromolecules 17(9):1671–1678Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Maric M, Ashurov N, Macosko CW (2001) Reactive blending of poly(dimethyl siloxane) with nylon 6 and polystyrene: effect of reactivity on morphology. Poly Eng Sci 41(4):631–642Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Boutevin B, Guida-Pietrasanta F, Ratsimihety A (2000) Side group modified polysiloxanes. In: Silicon-Containing Polymers. Kluwer, Rotterdam, pp 79–112Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mohanty S, Santra RN, Nando GB (1997) Reactive blending of ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer and poly-dimethyl siloxane rubber: kinetics studies from infrared spectroscopy. Adv Poly Technol 16(4):323–329Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Santra RN et al. (1993) Thermogravimetric studies on miscible blends of ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA) and polydimethylsiloxane rubber (PDMS). Thermochim Acta 219(1–2):283–292Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bhattacharya AK et al. (1995) Studies on miscibility of blends of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) and poly(dimethyl siloxane) rubber by melt rheology. J Appl Poly Sci 55(13):1747–1755Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jana RN, Nando GB (2003) Chemorheological study of compatibilized blends of low-density polyethylene and polydimethyl siloxane rubber. J Appl Poly Sci 88(12):2810–2817Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jana RN, Nando GB (2003) Thermogravimetric analysis of blends of low-density polyethylene and poly(dimethyl siloxane) rubber: The effects of compatibilizers. J Appl Poly Sci 90(3):635–642Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Santra RN et al. (1993) In-situ compatibilization of low-density polyethylene and polydimethylsiloxane rubber blends using ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer as a chemical compatibilizer. J Appl Poly Sci 49(7):1145–1158Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Santra RN et al. (1995) In-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic polyurethane and polydimethyl siloxane rubber by using ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer as a reactive polymeric compatibilizer. Adv Poly Technol 14(1):59–66Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jana RN, Mukunda PG, Nando GB (2003) Thermogravimetric analysis of compatibilized blends of low density polyethylene and poly(dimethyl siloxane) rubber. Poly Degrad Stabil 80(1):75–82Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Munoz PMP et al. (2001) High-density polyethylene modified by polydimethyl siloxane. J Appl Poly Sci 82(14):3460–3467Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shih W-C et al. (1999) Polydimethylsiloxane containing isocyanate group-modified epoxy resin: curing, characterization, and properties. J Appl Poly Sci 73(13):2739–2747Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Scott HG (1972) Crosslinking of olefinic polymers and copolymers. US Patent 3646155Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shieh Y-T, Tsai T-H (1998) Silane grafting reactions of low-density polyethylene. J Appl Poly Sci 69(2):255–261Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Swarbrick PGWJ, Maillefer C (1978) Manufacture of extruded products. US Patent 4117195Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chorvath I et al. (2002) Polyolefin thermoplastic silicone elastomers employing radical cure. WO Patent 2002088247Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jana RN, Bhunia HP, Nando GB (1997) An investigation into the mechanical properties and curing kinetics of blends of low-density polyethylene and poly(dimethylsiloxane) rubber. Thermochim Acta 302(1–2):1–9Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kole S, Roy S, Bhowmick AK (1994) Interaction between silicone and EPDM rubbers through functionalization and its effect on properties of the blend. Polymer 35(16):3423–3246Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kole S, Roy S, Bhowmick AK (1995) Influence of chemical interaction on the properties of silicone-EPDM rubber blend. Polymer 36(17):3273–3277Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Badesha SS et al. (2000) Compatibilized blend of fluoroelastomer and polysiloxane useful for printing machine component. Xerox, Stamford, CT, USA, p 6Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chorvath I et al. (2004) Fluoroplastic silicone vulcanizates. WO Patent 2004108822Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Furukawa H, Nakamura A, Shirahata A (1996) Preparation of siloxane-thermoplastic resin compositions with reduced surface siloxane bleed. US Patent 5604288Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jalali-Arani A, Katbab AA, Nazockdast H (2003) Preparation of thermoplastic elastomers based on silicone rubber and polyethylene by thermomechanical reactive blending: Effects of polyethylene structural parameters. J Appl Poly Sci 90(12):3402–3408Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shen J, Ye N (2001) Study on reaction kinetics of silane grafted HDPE and LLDP. Hecheng E Shuzhi Ji Suliao 18(3):9–12Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kole S et al. (1995) Grafting of silicone rubber onto polypropylene or polyethylene. Polym Networks Blend 5(3):117–122Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Brook MA (2000) Silicones. In: Matison BMJ (ed) Silicon in Organic Organometallic and Polymer Chemistry. Wiley, New York, pp 256–308Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hamurcu EE, Baysal BM (1993) Interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(dimethylsiloxane): 1. Preparation and characterization. Polymer 34(24):5163–5167Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Turner J, Cheng Y-L (2001) Process for preparing interpenetrating polymer networks of controlled morphology. US Patent 6331578Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Turner JS, Cheng YL (2000) Preparation of PDMS-PMAA Interpenetrating polymer network membranes using the monomer immersion method. Macromolecules 33(10):3714–3718Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Turner JS, Cheng YL (2004) pH dependence of PDMS-PMAA IPN morphology and transport properties. J Membr Sci 240(1–2):19–24Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Turner JS, Cheng YL (2003) Morphology of PDMS-PMAA IPN membranes. Macromolecules 36(6):1962–1966Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Robert C, Bunel C, Vairon J-P (1995) Hydrophilic, transparent material with high oxygen permeability containing interpenetrating polymer networks for use in soft contact lenses. EP Patent 643083Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Abbasi F, Mirzadeh H, Katbab AA (2002) Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and polydimethylsiloxane. J Appl Poly Sci 85(9):1825–1831Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hron P et al. (1997) Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. IX Composites containing powdery polyacrylamide hydrogel. Biomaterials 18(15):1069–1073Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lopour P, Janatova V (1995) Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. VI Transport properties in the water-swollen state. Biomaterials 16(8):633–640Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Duckova K et al. (1993) Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. Part 5. Transdermal therapeutic systems based on hydrogel-filled silicone rubber. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 39(5):208–211Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lopour P et al. (1993) Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. IV Silicone matrix-hydrogel filler interaction and mechanical properties. Biomaterials 14(14):1051–1055Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lednicky F et al. (1991) Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. III An investigation of phase distribution by scanning electron microscopy. Biomaterials 12(9):848–852Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cifkova I et al. (1990) Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. I Biological properties of the silicone rubber-p(HEMA) composite. Biomaterials 11(6):393–396Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lopour P et al. (1990) Silicone rubber-hydrogel composites as polymeric biomaterials. II Hydrophilicity, permeability to water-soluble low-molecular-weight compounds. Biomaterials 11(6):397–402Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sulc J, Vondracek P, Lopour P (1986) Hydrophilic silicone composites. DE Patent 3616883Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Abbasi F, Mirzadeh H, Katbab AA (2002) Comparison of viscoelastic properties of polydimethylsiloxane/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) IPNs with their physical blends. J Appl Poly Sci 86(14):3480–3485Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Falcetta JJ, Friends GD, Niu GCC (1975) Molding from an interpenetrating network polymer. DE Patent 2518904Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Huang G-S, Li Q, Jiang L-X (2002) Structure and damping properties of polydimethylsiloxane and polymethacrylate sequential interpenetrating polymer networks. J Appl Poly Sci 85(3):545–551Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    He X et al. (1995) Preparation of interpenetrating acrylic polymer-siloxane networks. US Patent 5424375Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    He XW et al. (1989) Poly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(methyl methacrylate) interpenetrating polymer networks: 1. Efficiency of stannous octoate as catalyst in the formation of poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks in methyl methacrylate. Polymer 30(2):364–368Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    He XW et al. (1992) Poly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(methyl methacrylate) interpenetrating polymer networks. 2. Synthesis and properties. Polymer 33(4):866–871Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Caille JR (2000) Macromol Symp 153:161–166Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Brachais L et al. (2002) Solid-state organization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(methylphenylsiloxane) based interpenetrating networks. Polymer 43(6):1829–1834Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bischoff RA et al. (1998) Interpenetrating polysiloxane-polymethacrylate networks. FR Patent 2757528Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miyata T et al. (1996) Preparation of polydimethylsiloxane/polystyrene interpenetrating polymer network membranes and permeation of aqueous ethanol solutions through the membranes by pervaporation. J Appl Poly Sci 61(8):1315–1324Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tsumura M, Iwahara T (2000) Silicon-based materials prepared by IPN formation and their properties. J Appl Poly Sci 78(4):724–731Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fichet O et al. (2005) Polydimethylsiloxane-cellulose acetate butyrate IPN synthesis and kinetic study, Part I. Polymer 46:37–47Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Darras V et al. (2004) Novel single and interpenetrating networks based on fluorinated polysiloxanes. Abstracts of Papers, 227th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA, March 28–April 1 2004, p POLY-513Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Frisch HL, Gebreyes K, Frisch KC (1988) Synthesis and characterization of semi- and full-interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and polydimethylsiloxane. J Poly Sci Part A: Poly Chem 26(9):2589–2596Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gebreyes K, Frisch HL (1988) Improved synthesis and characterization of interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). J Poly Sci Part A: Poly Chem 26(12):3391–3395Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Frisch HLHMW (1991) Birefringence in Interpenetrating Polymer Networks of Poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Dioxide)/Polydimethylsiloxane. J Poly Sci Part A: Poly Chem 29:131–133Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ebdon JR, Hourston DJ, Klein PG (1984) Polyurethane-polysiloxane interpenetrating polymer networks. 1. A polyether urethane-poly(dimethylsiloxane) system. Polymer 25(11):1633–1639Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ebdon JR, Hourston DJ, Klein PG (1986) Polyurethane-polysiloxane interpenetrating polymer networks: 2. Morphological and dynamic mechanical studies. Polymer 27(11):1807–1814Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Klein PG, Ebdon JR, Hourston DJ (1988) Polyurethane-polysiloxane interpenetrating networks: 3. Polyetherurethane-poly(phenylmethylsiloxane) systems. Polymer 29(6):1079–1085Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Zhou P, Xu Q, Frisch HL (1994) Kinetics of simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(dimethylsiloxane-urethane)/poly(methyl methacrylate) formation and studies of their phase morphology. Macromolecules 27(4):938–946Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zhou P et al. (1993) J Poly Sci Part A: Poly Chem 31:2481Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Frisch KC, Frisch HL, Klempner D (1972) Reseaux de polymères entremêlés. FR Patent 2110159Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Dobkowski Z, Zielecka M (2002) Thermal analysis of the poly(siloxane)-poly(tetrafluoroethylene) coating system. J Therm Analy Calorim 68(1):147–158Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jones AS et al. (2000) Amide-type polymer/silicone polymer blends and processes of making the same. WO Patent 2000078842Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Murray DL, Hale WR, Jones AS (2000) Nylon 6-silicone blends. WO Patent 2000078845Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Liao J, Shearer G, Gross C (2003) Silicone TPV offers high performance solutions. Rubber World 227(5):40–43Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Arkles B, Carreno C (1984) Filler-free models for the role of organofunctional silanes in composites. Polymeric Mat Sci Eng 50:440–443Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Marciniec B (1992) Comprehensive Handbook on Hydrosilylation. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Arkles B, Crosby J (1990) Polysiloxane-thermoplastic interpenetrating polymer networks. Advances in Chemistry Series 224(Silicon-Based Polym Sci), pp 181–199Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Arkles BC (1983) Thermoplastic-curable silicone blends. US Patent 4500688Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Arkles B (1983) A reactive processing method for IPN thermoplastics. Polymeric Mat Sci Eng 49:6–9Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gornowicz G et al. (2003) Thermoplastic elastomers containing polyurethanes and silicone. WO Patent 2003035757Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gornowicz GA et al. (2000) Thermoplastic silicone elastomers and their preparation. US Patent 6013715Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Zolotnitsky M (1997) Composition and method for impact modification of thermoplastics. US Patent 5648426Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Brewer C et al. (2003) Thermoplastic silicone elastomers from compatibilized polyamide resins. WO Patent 2003035759Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Brewer CM et al. (2002) Thermoplastic silicone elastomers from compatibilized polyamide resins. US Patent 2002091205Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Chorvath I et al. (2002) Thermoplastic elastomer compositions containing silicone rubber and nylon resins and the dynamically vulcanizing method. US Patent 2002086937Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Chorvath I et al. (2001) Vulcanized thermoplastic silicone elastomers from nylon resins and polysiloxanes. WO Patent 2001072903Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Chorvath I et al. (2001) Silicone rubber-toughened thermoplastic resin composition. WO Patent 2001018116Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Crosby JM, Hutchins MK (1986) Fiber-reinforced thermoplastics containing silicone interpenetrating polymer networks. EP Patent 194350Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Fournier FM, Rabe RL (2004) Polyamide based thermoplastic silicone elastomers. US Patent 2004014888Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chorvath I et al. (2002) Polysiloxane-based thermoplastic rubber containing polyester resins. WO Patent 2002046310Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ward SK, O'Brien (1989) Enhanced GS melt extrusion of thermoplastics containing silicone interpenetrating polymer networks. EP Patent 308836Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gross C, Lee M, Liao J (2003) Thermoplastic silicone elastomers from compatibilized polyester resins. WO Patent 2003035764Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Romenesko DJ, Mullan SP (1993) Poly(phenylene ether) resin modified with silicone rubber powder. EP Patent 543597Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Gornowicz GA (2000) Thermoplastic elastomers based on fluorocarbon resins and silicones. US Patent 6015858Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Chung JYJ, Mason JP (1996) Toughened aromatic polycarbonate containing silicone rubber powder as molding composition. US Patent 5556908Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Mason JP et al. (1997) Impact-modified polyamide-based molding composition. US Patent 5610223Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Bilgrien CJ et al. (1992) Storage-stable flowable organosiloxane composition powders and their preparation. US Patent 5153238Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Romenesko DJ, Buch RR (1995) Silicone resin powder for improving fire retardancy of organic resins. US Patent 5391594Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Fustin CA et al. (2002) Reactive blending of functional polysiloxanes with poly(butylene terephthalate): clarification of reaction mechanisms and kinetics from a model compound study. J Poly Sci Part A: Poly Chem 40(12):1952–1961Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Itoh K, Fukuda T (1978) Thermally curable silicone rubber compositions. US Patent 4164491Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Chorvath I et al. (2002) Thermoplastic silicone elastomers employing radical cure. US Patent 6465552Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Fu FS, Mark JE (1988) Elastomer reinforcement from a glassy polymer polymerized in-situ. J Poly Sci Part B: Poly Phys 26(11):2229–2235Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Liang YF (1987) Arylene sulfide polymers of improved impact strength. US Patent 4708983Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Liang YF, Beever WH (1985) Rubbery compounds as modifiers for poly(arylene sulfide). US Patent 4888390Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Fujiki M, Furuta D, Naito M (2004) Manufacture of semi-IPN (interpenetrating polymer network) composite and the composite made of crosslinkable siloxane and radically polymerized polymer. JP Patent 2004263062Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Arkles BC, Smith RA (1990) Secondary crosslinked siloxane semiinterpenetrating polymer networks and methods of making them. US Patent 4970263Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Gilmer TC et al. (1996) Synthesis, characterization, and mechanical properties of PMMA/poly(aromatic/aliphatic siloxane) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. J Poly Sci Part A: Poly Chem 34(6):1025–1037Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Gornowicz GA, Chang HS (2000) Thermoplastic silicone vulcanizates prepared by condensation cure. US Patent 6153691Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Knaub P, Camberlin Y (1988) Gerard JF, New reactive polymer blends based on poly(urethane ureas) (PUR) and polydisperse poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS): control of morphology using a PUR-b-PDMS block copolymer. Polymer 29(8):1365–1377Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Vlad S, Vlad A, Oprea S (2002) Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane and polysiloxane. Eur Poly J 38(4):829–835Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Xiao H et al. (1990) The synthesis and morphology of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane-poly(dimethylsiloxane) system. J Poly Sci Part A: Poly Chem 28(3):585–594Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Morin A (1990) Thermoplastic polycondensate-silicone blends and their preparation. FR Patent 2640632Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Arkles BC (1987) Manufacture of curable silicone semi-interpenetrating networks. US Patent 4714739Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kohara S et al. (1999) Thermoplastic olefin elastomer compositions with low compression set, no oil bleeding, and good weather resistance. JP Patent 11181172Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sibahara S, Sugisaki A, Iwasa T (2000) Thermoplastic olefin rubber compositions for oil- and weather-resistant moldings. WO Patent 2000043447Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Medsker RE et al. (2000) Process for silicon hydride curing of thermoplastic vulcanizates. US Patent 6150464Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR 5253 CNRS-ENSCM-UM2-UM1Equine: Ingénierie et Architectures Macromoléculaires, Université MontpellierII - Bat. 17 – CC1702Montpellier cedex 5France

Personalised recommendations