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Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS)-Containing Nanohybrid Polymers

  • K. PielichowskiEmail author
  • J. Njuguna
  • B. Janowski
  • J. Pielichowski
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 201)

Abstract

Polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS)-based hybrid polymers have generated much interest recently, both from the academic and industrial points of view. POSS are completely defined molecules of nanoscale dimensions that may be functionalized with reactive groups suitable for the synthesis of new organic–inorganic hybrids, thus providing the opportunity to design and build materials with extremely well-defined dimensions possessing nanophase behavior. POSS have been successfully incorporated into common polymers via copolymerization, grafting or blending. A variety of POSS-containing copolymers have been prepared and they have displayed great potential in the development of a wide range of hybrid nanomaterials with diverse properties. This work has critically evaluated the recent developments in syntheses of POSS polymer materials leading to POSS nanocomposites. The syntheses of POSS cages, monomers containing POSS cages, POSS-dendrimers' cores, POSS-containing polymers (nanobuilding blocks) and POSS nanocomposites are described in detail. This work also assesses the properties of POSS nanobuilding blocks that can be otherwise used for developing nanocomposites. Such properties include mechanical, thermal, flame-retardant and viscoelastic properties. Investigations into the structure, morphology and compatibility of POSS nanobuilding blocks have been reviewed. Other properties covered include the ion-mobility and swelling characteristics as well as porosity of POSS nanobuilding blocks. Lastly, existing and possible future applications are highlighted and final conclusions are drawn.

Applications Nanohybrid polymers POSS Properties Synthesis 

Abbreviations

AIBN

2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile

ATRP

atom-transfer radical polymerization

BDGE

1,4-butandiol diglycidyl ether

BSA

4,4′-[1,3-phenylenebis-(1-methylethylidene)]bisaniline

c-C5H9

cyclopentyl

c-C6H11

cyclohexyl

c-C7H13

cycloheptyl

m-CPBA

meta-chloroperbenzoic acid

DCPD

dicyclopentadiene

DDM

diaminodiphenylmethane

DGEBA

diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A

DMA or DMTA

dynamic mechanical analysis

DP

degree of polymerization

DRIFTS

diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (spectroscopy)

DSC

differential scanning calorimetry

EtO

ethoxyl

EXAFS

extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy

E′

storage modulus

FTIR

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

G′

shear storage modulus

G′′

loss modulus

GPC

gel permeation chromatography

MALDI-TOF

matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight (spectroscopy)

MDI

4,4′-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate)

Me

methyl group

MPDA

2-methyl-1,5-pentadiamine

MSD

mean square displacement

MW

molecular weight

1NB-POSS

norbornenylethyl-POSS

3NB-POSS

tris(norbornenylethyl)-POSS

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

OAPS

octaaminophenylsilsesquioxane

ODA

oxydianiline

ODPA

oxydiphthalic anhydride

OG

octaglycidyldimethylsiloxyoctasilsesquioxane

OHPS

octakis(3-hydroxypropyldimethylsiloxy)octasilsesquioxane

OMPS

octakis(3-methacryloxypropyldimethylsiloxy)octasilsesquioxane

PAA

poly(amic acid)

PALS

positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

PAPS

polyaminophenylsilsesquioxane

PAS

polyacetoxystyrene

PDMA

pyromellitic dianhydride

PDMAm

poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)

PEO

poly(ethylene oxide)

PMMA

poly(methyl methacrylate)

PN

polynorbornene

PPh3

triphenylphosphine

PPO

poly(propylene oxide)

POSS

polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

POZO

poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)

PPSQ

polyphenylsilsesquioxane

PS

polystyrene

Pt(dvs)

platinum divinyltetramethyldisiloxane

PTMG

polytetramethylene glycol

PU

polyurethane

PVP

polyvinylpyrrolidone

ROMP

ring-opening metathesis polymerization

SAXS

small-angle X-ray scattering

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

SPM

scanning probe microscopy

SSA

specific surface area

STXM

scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

tanδ

mechanical loss factor

tert-Boc

tert-butoxycarbonyl

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

TG

thermogravimetry

Tg

glass temperature

TGDDM

tetraglycidyldiaminodiphenylmethane

THF

tetrahydrofuran

m-TMI

meta-isopropenyl-α,α′-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate

T

temperature

TODT

order-disorder transition temperature

Ts

tosyl (4-toluenesulfonyl) group

WAXD

wide angle X-ray diffraction

VMB

4-vinyl-4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridine

ω

shear frequency

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Pielichowski
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Njuguna
    • 2
  • B. Janowski
    • 1
  • J. Pielichowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Technology of PolymersCracow University of TechnologyKrakówPoland
  2. 2.School of Industrial and Manufacturing ScienceCranfield UniversityCranfield, Bedfordshire,UK

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