Biopolyesters in Tissue Engineering Applications

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 203)

Abstract

Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field of research focused on the development of vital autologous tissue through the use of a combination of biomaterials, cells, and bioactive molecules, for the purposes of repairing damaged or diseased tissue and organs. Due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as their broad range of mechanical properties, natural polyesters from the group of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have emerged as promising materials for various tissue engineering applications, including cardiovascular system, nerve, bone, and cartilage repair applications. Thus far, the majority of research on medical applications of PHAs refers to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate). In recent years, other PHAs, such as poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate), have drawn increasing attention as viable materials for biomedical applications. Copolymers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and medium-chain-length hydroxyalkanoates offer the advantage of having elastomeric properties. This is of particular importance for engineering of elastomeric tissue, such as in the cardiovascular system, and for providing mechanical stimuli, such as in cartilage repair. This review will describe the characteristics of promising biopolyesters for tissue engineering, together with strategies that can be used to adjust the material properties to the clinical requirements; examples of potential applications will also be presented.

Biocompatibility Biodegradability Mechanical properties Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s Tissue engineering applications 

Abbreviations

3HB

3-Hydroxybutyrate

3HH

3-Hydroxyhexanoate

3HV

3-Hydroxyvalerate

4HB

4-Hydroxybutyrate

at-P3HB

Atactic P3HB

BTHC

Butyryltrihexyl citrate

dg-P3HB

Degraded P3HB

ECM

Extracellular matrix

HA

Hydroxyapatite

i.m.

Intramuscular, intramuscularly

i.p.

Intraperitoneal, intraperitoneally

P3HB

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

P3HB-3HV

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)

P3HB-4HB

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)

P3HB-3HH

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)

P3HO-3HH

Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)

P3HU

Poly(3-hydroxyundecenoate)

P4HB

Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate)

PCL

Poly(ε-caprolactone)

PDLLA

Poly(d,l-lactide)

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PGA

Poly(glycolide)

PHA

Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)

PLGA

Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)

PLLA

Poly(l-lactide)

s.c.

Subcutaneous, subcutaneously

st-P3HB

Syndiotactic P3HB

TCP

Tricalcium phosphate

TEC

Triethyl citrate

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Smart Biotech Inc.TorontoCanada

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