Hydrogels for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 203)

Abstract

The advancements in scaffold-supported cell therapy for musculoskeletal tissue engineering have been truly dramatic in the last couple of decades. This article briefly reviews the role of natural and synthetic hydrogels in the above field. The most appealing feature of hydrogels as scaffolding materials is their structural similarity to extracellular matrix (ECM) and their easy processability under mild conditions. The primary developments in this field comprise formulation of biomimetic hydrogels incorporating specific biochemical and biophysical cues so as to mimic the natural ECM, design strategies for cell-mediated degradation of scaffolds, techniques for achieving in situ gelation which allow minimally invasive administration of cell-laden hydrogels into the defect site, scaffold-mediated differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells, and finally, the integration of tissue-engineered “biological implants” with the native tissue. All these developments in regenerative medicine are reviewed in this article.

Hydrogels Minimally invasive Musculoskeletal tissue engineering Scaffold Stem cell 

Abbreviations

ACT

Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation

BMP

bone morphogenetic proteins

CO2

carbon dioxide

CS

chondroitin sulfate

ECM

extracellular matrix

e-PTFE

expanded poly(tetrafluroethylene) membrane

ES

embryonic stem cells

GAG

glycosaminoglycan

HA

hyaluroic acid

hES

human embryonic stem cells

IVD

intervertebral disc

LCST

lower critical solution temperature

MIS

minimally invasive surgeries

MMP

matrix metalloproteinase

MSC

mesenchymal stem cells

NiTi

nitinol

OA

osteoarthritis

OPF

poly(ethylene glycol fumerate)

PAA

poly(acrylic acid)

PAMPS

poly(acrylamidomtheyl propane sulfonic acid)

PEG

poly(ethylene glycol)

PEO

poly(ethylene oxide)

PEGDA

poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate)

PGA

poly(glycolic acid)

PHEMA

poly(hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate)

PLA

poly(lactic acid)

PLGA

poly(lactic-glycolic) acid

PNIPAm

poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)

PPF

poly(propylene fumerate)

PVA

poly(vinyl alcohol)

RGD

arginine-glycine-aspartic acids

SIS

small intestinal submucosa

2D

two dimensional

3D

three dimensional

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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