Investigation of Quadruplex Structure Under Physiological Conditions Using In-Cell NMR

  • Robert Hänsel
  • Silvie Foldynová-Trantírková
  • Volker DötschEmail author
  • Lukáš Trantírek
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 330)


In this chapter we describe the application of in-cell NMR spectroscopy to the investigation of G-quadruplex structures inside living Xenopus laevis oocytes and in X. laevis egg extract. First, in-cell NMR spectroscopy of nucleic acids (NA) is introduced and applications and limitations of the approach are discussed. In the following text the application of in-cell NMR spectroscopy to investigation of G-quadruplexes are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of the influence of the intracellular environmental factors such as low molecular weight compounds, molecular crowding, and hydration on structural behavior of G-quadruplexes. Finally, future perspectives of in-cell NMR spectroscopy for quantitative characterization of G-quadruplexes and NA are discussed.

Graphical Abstract


G-quadruplex In vivo In-cell NMR Molecular crowding Xenopus laevis 



LT acknowledges support from a VIDI career development grant by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NOW). RH acknowledges support from the Fond der Chemischen Industrie (FCI). Support from The Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), the Cluster of Excellence Frankfurt (Macromolecular Complexes), and the EU (Bio-NMR) is also gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Hänsel
    • 1
  • Silvie Foldynová-Trantírková
    • 2
  • Volker Dötsch
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lukáš Trantírek
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Biophysical Chemistry and Center for Biomolecular Magnetic ResonanceGoethe UniversityFrankfurt/MainGermany
  2. 2.Department of Medical OncologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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