Dynamic Nuclear Hyperpolarization in Liquids

  • Ulrich L. GüntherEmail author
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 335)


Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a broadly used analytical method with major applications in chemistry, biochemistry and medicine. Key applications include structural analysis of small molecules, metabolites, larger biomolecules such as proteins, RNA and DNA, and applications in material science. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is based on the same physical principles, is extensively used in medical diagnostics and represents the most widespread application of NMR. However, NMR is fundamentally limited in sensitivity and this has always restricted its applicability. Hyperpolarization techniques such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) have become a major field of research and development because they hold the promise of increasing the sensitivity of NMR by several orders of magnitude. Such sensitivity enhancements could significantly broaden NMR applications, combining its unique structural information with much higher sensitivity. Unfortunately, there is no single implementation of DNP that would be suitable for a broader range of typical NMR applications. Experimental conditions often circumscribe areas of possible applications. Nevertheless, recent developments point towards experimental protocols providing solutions for specific applications of NMR. This review summarizes the concepts behind DNP in the light of recent developments and potential applications.


DNP Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Hyperpolarization NMR 



Cross effect


Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization


Dissolution DNP


Dynamic nuclear polarization


Magnetic resonance imaging


Nuclear magnetic resonance




Overhauser effect


Parahydrogen-induced polarization


Quantum rotor polarization


Solid effect


Solid-state DNP


Thermal mixing



I would like to thank Marina Bennati and Thomas Prisner for helpful discussions. I would like to thank Christian Ludwig for providing additional data for Fig. 16d. I also thank Christian Ludwig and Rafael Brüschweiler for critical proof reading.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HWB-NMR, School of Cancer SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

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