Advertisement

Dynamic Nuclear Hyperpolarization in Liquids

  • Ulrich L. Günther
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 335)

Abstract

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a broadly used analytical method with major applications in chemistry, biochemistry and medicine. Key applications include structural analysis of small molecules, metabolites, larger biomolecules such as proteins, RNA and DNA, and applications in material science. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is based on the same physical principles, is extensively used in medical diagnostics and represents the most widespread application of NMR. However, NMR is fundamentally limited in sensitivity and this has always restricted its applicability. Hyperpolarization techniques such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) have become a major field of research and development because they hold the promise of increasing the sensitivity of NMR by several orders of magnitude. Such sensitivity enhancements could significantly broaden NMR applications, combining its unique structural information with much higher sensitivity. Unfortunately, there is no single implementation of DNP that would be suitable for a broader range of typical NMR applications. Experimental conditions often circumscribe areas of possible applications. Nevertheless, recent developments point towards experimental protocols providing solutions for specific applications of NMR. This review summarizes the concepts behind DNP in the light of recent developments and potential applications.

Keywords

DNP Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Hyperpolarization NMR 

Abbreviations

CE

Cross effect

CIDNP

Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization

D-DNP

Dissolution DNP

DNP

Dynamic nuclear polarization

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

O-DNP

Overhauser-DNP

OE

Overhauser effect

PHIP

Parahydrogen-induced polarization

QRP

Quantum rotor polarization

SE

Solid effect

SS-DNP

Solid-state DNP

TM

Thermal mixing

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Marina Bennati and Thomas Prisner for helpful discussions. I would like to thank Christian Ludwig for providing additional data for Fig. 16d. I also thank Christian Ludwig and Rafael Brüschweiler for critical proof reading.

References

  1. 1.
    Abragam A (1961) Principles of nuclear magnetism. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jeffries CD (1964) Ann Rev Nucl Sci 14:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bouchiat M, Carver T, Varnum C (1960) Phys Rev Lett 5:373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eisenschmid TC, Kirss RU, Deutsch PP, Hommeltoft SI, Eisenberg R, Bargon J, Lawler RG, Balch AL (1987) J Am Chem Soc 109:8089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowers CR, Weitekamp DP (1986) Phys Rev Lett 57:2645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bargon J, Fischer H, Johnsen U (1967) Z Naturforsch A 22:1551Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ward HR, Lawler RG (1967) J Am Chem Soc 89:5518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Closs GL (1969) J Am Chem Soc 91:4552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kaptein R, Dijkstra K, Nicolay K (1978) Nature 274:293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Adams R, Aguilar J, Atkinson K, Cowley M, Elliott P, Duckett S, Green G, Khazal I, Lopez-Serrano J, Williamson D (2009) Science 323:1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haupt J (1972) Phys Lett A A 38:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Horsewill AJ (1999) Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 35:359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ludwig C, Saunders M, Marin-Montesinos I, Günther UL (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:10799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tomaselli M, Meier U, Meier BH (2004) J Chem Phys 120:4051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tomaselli M, Knecht DW, Holleman I, Meijer G, Meier BH (2000) J Chem Phys 113:5141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tomaselli M, Meier BH (2001) J Chem Phys 115:11017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bifone A, Song YQ, Seydoux R, Taylor RE, Goodson BM, Pietrass T, Budinger TF, Navon G, Pines A (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:12932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lampel G (1968) Phys Rev Lett 20:491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Albert MS, Cates GD, Driehuys B, Happer W, Saam B, Springer CS Jr, Wishnia A (1994) Nature 370:199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Navon G, Song Y-Q, Rõõm T, Appelt S, Taylor R, Pines A (1996) Science 271:1848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Overhauser AW (1953) Phys Rev 92:411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carver TR, Slichter CP (1953) Phys Rev 92:212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carver TR, Slichter CP (1956) Phys Rev 102:975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pound RV (1950) Phys Rev 79:685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abragam A (1955) Phys Rev 98:1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jeffries CD (1957) Phys Rev 106:164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Borghini M (1968) Phys Rev Lett 20:419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Borghini M, Scheffler K (1971) Phys Rev Lett 26:1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abragam A, Proctor W (1958) C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 246:2253Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kessenikh A, Lushchinov V, Manekov A, Taran Y (1963) Sov Phys Solid State 5:321Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kessenikh A, Manenkov A, Lyatnitskii G (1964) Sov Phys Solid State 6:641Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hwang CF, Hill D (1967) Phys Rev Lett 18:110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hwang CF, Hill DA (1967) Phys Rev Lett 19:1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Byvik CE, Wollan DS (1974) Phys Rev B 10:791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wollan DS (1976) Phys Rev B 13:3686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wind RA, Duijvestijn MJ, van der Lugt C, Manenschijn A, Vriend J (1985) Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 17:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hausser K, Stehlik D (1968) Adv Magn Reson 3:79Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hall D, Maus D, Gerfen G, Inati S, Becerra L, Dahlquist F, Griffin R (1997) Science 276:930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Müller-Warmuth W, Meise-Gresch K (1983) Adv Magnn Reson 11:1Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bennati M, Tkach I, Türke M-T (2011) Electron Paramagn Reson 22:155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abragam A, Goldman M (1978) Rep Prog Phys 41:395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Maly T, Debelouchina GT, Bajaj VS, Hu KN, Joo CG, Mak-Jurkauskas ML, Sirigiri JR, van der Wel PC, Herzfeld J, Temkin RJ, Griffin RG (2008) J Chem Phys 128:052211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hovav Y, Feintuch A, Vega S (2011) J Chem Phys 134:074509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Fridlund B, Gram A, Hansson G, Hansson L, Lerche MH, Servin R, Thaning M, Golman K (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci 100:10158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Slichter CP (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Denninger G, Stocklein W, Dormann E, Schwoerer M (1984) Chem Phys Lett 107:222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stocklein W, Seidel H, Singel D, Kendrick R, Yannoni C (1987) Chem Phys Lett 141:277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wind RA, Lock H, Mehring M (1987) Chem Phys Lett 141:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Solomon I (1955) Phys Rev Lett 99:959Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bates R Jr, Drozdoski W (1977) J Chem Phys 67:4038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Armstrong B, Han S (2007) J Chem Phys 127:104508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Abragam A, Pound R (1953) Phys Rev 92:943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hwang LP, Freed JH (1975) J Chem Phys 63:4017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bennati M, Luchinat C, Parigi G, Türke M (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Armstrong BD, Han S (2009) J Am Chem Soc 131:4641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Reese M, Türke MT, Tkach I, Parigi G, Luchinat C, Marquardsen T, Tavernier A, Hofer P, Engelke F, Griesinger C, Bennati M (2009) J Am Chem Soc 131:15086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lingwood M, Han S (2009) J Magn Reson 201:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sezer D, Prandolini MJ, Prisner TF (2009) Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:6626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kryukov EV, Pike KJ, Tam TKY, Newton ME, Smith ME, Dupree R (2011) Phys Chem Chem Phys 13:4372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jeffries CD (1960) Phys Rev 117:1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wenckebach WT (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Henstra A, Wenckebach WT (2008) Mol Phys 106:859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jeschke G, Schweiger A (1996) Mol Phys 88(2):335Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Henstra A, Dirksen P, Schmidt J, Wenckebach WT (1988) J Magn Reson 77:389Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wind R, Lock H (1990) Adv Magn Opt Reson 15:51Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ludwig C, Marin-Montesinos I, Saunders MG, Günther UL (2010) J Am Chem Soc 132:2508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lumata L, Kovacs Z, Malloy C, Sherry AD, Merritt M (2011) Phys Med Biol 56:N85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bloembergen N (1949) Physica 15:3386Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dementyev AE, Cory DG, Ramanathan C (2008) Phys Rev Lett 100:127601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Saunders MG, Ludwig C, Günther UL (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:6914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Abragam A, Borghini M (1964) In: Gorter C (ed) Progress in low temperature physics, vol IV. North-Holland Publishing Company, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Goldman M (1970) Spin temperature and nuclear magnetic resonance in solids. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Goertz S (2004) Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 526:28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Radtke E, Reicherz G, Schiemann M (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wind R, Li L, Lock H, Maciel G (1988) J Magn Reson 79:577Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Henstra A, Dirksen P, Wenckebach WT (1988) Phys Lett A 134:134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Henstra A, Lin T, Schmidt J, Wenckebach W (1990) Chem Phys Lett 165:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Weis V, Bennati M, Rosay M, Griffin RG (2000) J Chem Phys 113:6795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Morley GW, van Tol J, Ardavan A, Porfyrakis K, Zhang J, Briggs GA (2007) Phys Rev Lett 98:220501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bajaj V, Farrar C, Hornstein M, Mastovsky I, Vieregg J, Bryant J, Elena B, Kreischer K, Temkin R, Griffin R (2003) J Magn Reson 160:85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bajaj VS, Hornstein MK, Kreischer KE, Sirigiri JR, Woskov PP, Mak-Jurkauskas ML, Herzfeld J, Temkin RJ, Griffin RG (2007) J Magn Reson 189:251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Maly T, Andreas LB, Smith AA, Griffin RG (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wind R, Anthonio F, Duijvestijn M, Smidt J, Trommel J, de Vette G (1983) J Magn Reson 52:424Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Afeworki M, McKay RA, Schaefer J (1992) Macromolecules 25:4084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Becerra LR, Gerfen GJ, Temkin RJ, Singel DJ, Griffin RG (1993) Phys Rev Lett 71:3561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Becerra L, Gerfen G, Bellew B, Bryant J, Hall D, Inati S, Weber R, Un S, Prisner T, McDermott A (1995) J Magn Reson Series A 117:28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hu KN, Yu H, Swager TM, Griffin RG (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:10844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Song C, Hu KN, Joo CG, Swager TM, Griffin RG (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:11385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Matsuki Y, Maly T, Ouari O, Karoui H, Le Moigne F, Rizzato E, Lyubenova S, Herzfeld J, Prisner T, Tordo P, Griffin RG (2009) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 48:4996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ysacco C, Rizzato E, Virolleaud M-A, Karoui H, Rockenbauer A, Le Moigne F, Siri D, Ouari O, Griffin RG, Tordo P (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Thurber KR, Tycko R (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Barnes AB, Corzilius B, Mak-Jurkauskas ML, Andreas LB, Bajaj VS, Matsuki Y, Belenky ML, Lugtenburg J, Sirigiri JR, Temkin RJ, Herzfeld J, Griffin RG (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Debelouchina GT, Bayro MJ, Van Der Wel PCA, Caporini MA, Barnes AB, Rosay M, Maas WE, Griffin RG (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Akbey U, Franks WT, Linden A, Lange S, Griffin RG, van Rossum BJ, Oschkinat H (2010) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 49:7803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Maly T, Miller AF, Griffin RG (2010) Chemphyschem 11:999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lesage A, Lelli M, Gajan D, Caporini MA, Vitzthum V, Mieville P, Alauzun J, Roussey A, Thieuleux C, Mehdi A, Bodenhausen G, Coperet C, Emsley L (2010) J Am Chem Soc 132:15459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Idehara T, Saito T, Ogawa I, Mitsudo S, Tatematsu Y, Agusu L, Mori H, Kobayashi S (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Feintuch A, Shimon D, Hovav Y, Banerjee D, Kaminker I, Lipkin Y, Zibzener K, Epel B, Vega S, Goldfarb D (2011) J Magn Reson 209:136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hunter RI, Cruickshank PAS, Bolton DR, Riedi PC, Smith GM (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Thurber KR, Yau WM, Tycko R (2010) J Magn Reson 204:303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dorn HC, Wang J, Allen L, Sweeney D, Glass T (1988) J Magn Reson 79:404Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Stevenson S, Dorn HC (1994) Anal Chem 66:2993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stevenson S, Glass T, Dorn H (1998) Anal Chem 70:2623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dorn H, Gitti R, Tsai K, Glass T (1989) Chem Phys Lett 155:227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sudmeier JL, Günther UL, Albert K, Bachovchin WW (1996) J Magn Reson A 118:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lingwood M, Siaw T, Sailasuta N, Ross B, Bhattacharya P, Han S (2010) J Magn Reson 205:247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Purcell EM, Pound RV (1951) Phys Rev 81:279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Redfield AG (2003) Magn Reson Chem 41:753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Grosse S, Gubaydullin F, Scheelken H, Vieth HM, Yurkovskaya AV (1999) Appl Magn Reson 17:211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Victor K, Kavolius V, Bryant R (2004) J Magn Reson 171:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Noack F (1986) Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 18:171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Reese M, Lennartz D, Marquardsen T, Höfer P, Tavernier A, Carl P, Schippmann T, Bennati M, Carlomagno T, Engelke F, Griesinger C (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Krahn A, Lottmann P, Marquardsen T, Tavernier A, Türke M, Reese M, Leonov A, Bennati M, Hoefer P, Engelke F (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Zotev VS, Owens T, Matlashov AN, Savukov IM, Gomez JJ, Espy MA (2010) J Magn Reson 207:78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Münnemann K, Bauer C, Schmiedeskam J, Spiess H, Schreiber W, Hiderberger D (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Armstrong B, Lingwood M, McCarney E, Brown E, Blümler P, Han S (2008) J Magn Reson 191:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    McDermott R (2002) Science 295:2247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Guiberteau T, Grucker D (1996) J Magn Reson Series B 110:47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Halse ME, Callaghan PT (2008) J Magn Reson 195:162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Türke MT, Tkach I, Reese M, Höfer P, Bennati M (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Höfer P, Parigi G, Luchinat C, Carl P, Guthausen G, Reese M, Carlomagno T, Griesinger C, Bennati M (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:3254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Villanueva-Garibay JA, Annino G, Van Bentum PJM, Kentgens APM (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Denysenkov V, Prandolini MJ, Gafurov M, Sezer D, Endeward B, Prisner TF (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Prandolini MJ, Denysenkov VP, Gafurov M, Endeward B, Prisner TF (2009) J Am Chem Soc 131:6090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sezer D, Gafurov M, Prandolini MJ, Denysenkov VP, Prisner T (2009) Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:6638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kryukov EV, Newton ME, Pike KJ, Bolton DR, Kowalczyk RM, Howes AP, Smith ME, Dupree R (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Loening N, Rosay M, Weis V, Griffin R (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:8808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kausik R, Han S (2009) J Am Chem Soc 131:18254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Armstrong BD, Choi J, Lopez C, Wesener DA, Hubbell W, Cavagnero S, Han S (2011) J Am Chem Soc 133:5987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sowerby A (2005) Chem Ind:21Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Leach AM, Clarke N, Urbahn J, Anderson D, Skloss TW (2011) NMR Biomed 24:927–932Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Comment A, van den Brandt B, Uffmann K, Kurdzesau F, Jannin S, Konter JA, Hautle P, Wenckebach WT, Gruetter R, Van Der Klink J (2007) Concepts Magn Reson 31B:225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Leggett J, Hunter R, Granwehr J, Panek R, Perez-Linde AJ, Horsewill AJ, McMaster J, Smith G, Kockenberger W (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bowen S, Hilty C (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Liu Y, Villamena FA, Rockenbauer A, Rockenbauer A, Zweier J (2010) Chem Commun (Camb) 46:628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Day SE, Kettunen MI, Gallagher FA, Hu DE, Lerche M, Wolber J, Golman K, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Brindle KM (2007) Nat Med 13:1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Brindle K (2008) Nat Rev Cancer 8:94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gallagher FA, Kettunen MI, Day SE, Hu D-E, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Zandt RIt, Jensen PR, Karlsson M, Golman K, Lerche MH, Brindle KM (2008) Nature 453:940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Nelson S, Vigneron D, Kurhanewicz J, Chen A, Bok R, Hurd D (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Golman K, Zandt RI, Lerche M, Pehrson R, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH (2006) Cancer Res 66:10855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ardenkjaer-Larsen J, Macholl S, Johannesson H (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Reynolds S, Patel H (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Day IJ, Mitchell JC, Snowden MJ, Davis AL (2007) Magn Reson Chem 45:1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Macholl S, Johannesson H, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Johannesson H, Macholl S, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH (2009) J Magn Reson 197:167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Jannin S, Comment A, Kurdzesau F, Konter JA, Hautle P, van den Brandt B, van der Klink JJ (2008) J Chem Phys 128:241102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Emwas A-H, Saunders M, Ludwig C, Günther U (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Comment A, Rentsch J, Kurdzesau F, Jannin S, Uffmann K, van Heeswijk RB, Hautle P, Konter JA, van den Brandt B, van der Klink JJ (2008) J Magn Reson 194:152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Kurdzesau F, van den Brandt B, Comment A, Hautle P, Jannin S, Van Der Klink J, Konter J (2008) J Phys D: Appl Phys 41:155506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Mishkovsky M, Frydman L (2008) Phys Chem Chem Phys 9:2340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Frydman L, Blazina D (2007) Nat Phys 3:415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Panek R, Granwehr J, Leggett J, Kockenberger W (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ludwig C, Marin-Montesinos I, Saunders MG, Emwas AH, Pikramenou Z, Hammond SP, Günther UL (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bowen S, Zeng H, Hilty C (2008) Anal Chem 80:5794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Zeng H, Bowen S, Hilty C (2009) J Magn Reson 199:159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Wilson D, Hurd R, Keshari K et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:5503Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Vasos PR, Comment A, Sarkar R, Ahuja P, Jannin S, Ansermet JP, Konter JA, Hautle P, van den Brandt B, Bodenhausen G (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:18469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Pileio G, Carravetta M, Levitt MH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:17135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Carravetta M, Johannessen OG, Levitt MH (2004) Phys Rev Lett 92:153003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Carravetta M, Levitt MH (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:6228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Warren WS, Jenista E, Branca RT, Chen X (2009) Science 323:1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Bowen S, Hilty C (2008) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 47:5235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Harris T, Giraudeau P, Frydman L (2011) Chemistry 17:697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Bowen S, Sekar G, Hilty C (2011) NMR Biomed 24:1016–1022Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Jensen PR, Meier S, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Duus JO, Karlsson M, Lerche MH (2009) Chem Commun (Camb):5168Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lerche MH, Meier S, Jensen PR, Baumann H, Petersen BO, Karlsson M, Duus JO, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH (2010) J Magn Reson 203:52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Joo CG, Hu KN, Bryant JA, Griffin RG (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:9428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Laursen I, Leunbach I, Ehnholm G, Wistrand LG, Petersson JS, Golman K (1998) J Magn Reson 133:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Thaning M (2000) US Patent 6,013,810Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Wind RA, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH (1999) J Magn Reson 141:347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Dane EL, Maly T, Debelouchina GT, Griffin RG, Swager TM (2009) Org Lett 11:1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Gafurov M, Lyubenova S, Denysenkov V, Ouari O, Karoui H, Le Moigne F, Tordo P, Prisner T (2010) Appl Magn Reson 37:505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gabellieri C, Mugnaini V, Paniagua JC, Roques N, Oliveros M, Feliz M, Veciana J, Pons M (2010) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 49:3360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Paniagua JC, Mugnaini V, Gabellieri C, Feliz M, Roques N, Veciana J, Pons M (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Stephan M, Günther UL (PhosPhoenix SARL) Patent FR2010 04364Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Dollmann BC, Kleschyov AL, Sen V, Golubev V, Schreiber L, Spiess H, Münnemann K, Hinderberger D (2010) Chemphyschem 11:3656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Dollmann BC, Junk MJN, Drechsler M, Spiess HW, Hinderberger D, Münnemann K (2010) Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:5879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Pavlovskaya GE, Cleveland ZI, Stupic KF, Basaraba RJ, Meersmann T (2005) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:18275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Türke M-T, Bennati M (2011) Phys Chem Chem Phys 13:3630–3633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Barnes A, De Paëpe G, Van Der Wel P, Hu K, Joo C, Bajaj V, Mak-Jurkauskas M, Sirigiri J, Herzfeld J, Temkin R, Griffin R (2008) Appl Magn Reson 34:237Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HWB-NMR, School of Cancer SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations