Chemosensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

  • Subramanian Suriyanarayanan
  • Piotr J. Cywinski
  • Artur J. Moro
  • Gerhard J. Mohr
  • Wlodzimierz Kutner
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 325)


A sensor is a device, which responds to a physical or chemical stimulus in order to produce a measurable detection signal or to control another operation [1]. Sensors are encountered in innumerable applications and have become an integral part of our day-to-day life. Examples of everyday use of sensors include a thermocouple, which responds to the change in temperature by an output voltage, or a touch-sensitive sensor of an interactive monitor screen. Basically, a sensor can respond, that is change its signal, to a single factor being sensed, i.e. either to the change of temperature or pressure in the above examples.


Quartz Crystal Microbalance Differential Pulse Voltammetry Functional Monomer Square Wave Voltammetry Quartz Resonator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations


2,2′-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride




alternating current




Atomic force microscopy






Bulk acoustic wave


Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate


Cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate


Chemical field-effect transistor


Cyclic voltammetry












Deoxyribonucleic acid


4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol (2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol)




Differential pulse voltammetry






Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate


Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy


Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance


Flow injection analysis


Fluorescence lifetime distribution


Fluorescence resonance energy transfer


Glassy carbon electrode


Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry


2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate


High performance liquid chromatography


Indole acetic acid


Ion-imprinted polymer


Ion-sensitive electrode


Indium-tin oxide


International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry


Limit of detection


Linear sweep voltammetry


Methacrylic acid




Methylated salicylate




Molecularly imprinted polymer


Molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste


Molecularly imprinted polypyrrole film


Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction


Methylphosphonic acid


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


N-Carbobenzoxy-aspartic acid


Non-imprinted polymer


Non-imprinted polymer-carbon paste


Poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)]-1,4-phenylene vinylene


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon






Piezoelectric microgravimetry


Poly(methacrylic acid)




Pinacolyl methylphosphonate


Poly(1,4-phenylene vinylene)


Poly(vinyl chloride)




Quartz crystal microbalance


Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer


Ring closing metathesis




Ribonucleic acid


Relative standard deviation


Self-assembled monolayer


Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate


Surface acoustic wave


Saturated calomel electrode


Sodium dodecyl sulphate


Scanning electrochemical microscopy


Scanning electron microscopy


Surface enhanced Raman scattering


Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave


Supported liquid membrane


Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate


Solid-phase extraction


Solid-phase micro extraction


Surface plasmon resonance


Single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid


Single-stranded ribonucleic acid


Surface transverse wave


Square wave voltammetry


Trichloroacetic acid


Tri(ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate










Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate


Thickness shear mode


Transmission surface plasmon resonance






trans-4-[1,4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-vinylbenzylpyridinium chloride







List of Symbols


Separation factor (selectivity)


Change in the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator


Change in the mass of the quartz resonator

ε, ε0

Electric permittivity of an insulator and free space, respectively


Shear modulus of the AT-cut quartz crystal


Density of quartz


Acoustically active area of the quartz crystal resonator


Surface area of the capacitor plate


Density of the imprinted binding sites (molecular cavities)




Distance between two parallel plates of a capacitor


Degree of substitution


Frequency of a.c. voltage


Fundamental resonant frequency of the unperturbed quartz resonator


Fraction of easily accessible cavities


Fluorescence intensity in the presence of analyte


Initial fluorescence intensity in the analyte absence


Current of anodic peak in LSV or CV


Retention factor


Acid dissociation constant


Complex dissociation constant

\( K_{\rm SV}^{\rm a} \)

Stern–Volmer constant for quenching inside MIP cavities

\( K_{{\text{N}}{{\text{O}}_3}^{-}, \;{\text{Cl}}{{\text{O}}_4}^{-},}^{\text{pot}}\,K_{{\text{N}}{{\text{O}}_3}^{-}, \;{{\text{I}}^{-} }}^{\text{pot}} \)

Potentiometric selectivity coefficients


Stability constant of the MIP–analyte complex formation


Stability constant of the NIP–analyte complex formation

\( {K_{{\text{selectivity\ C}}{{\text{u}}^{{2} + }}/{\text{N}}{{\text{i}}^{{2} + }}}} \)

Ratio of the selectivity coefficients of the imprinted Cu2+ and non-imprinted Ni2+ polymers


Analyte concentration


Imaginary part of impedance



S.S. and P.J.C. equally contributed to this chapter. W.K. thanks the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08 2007-2013) for financial support. S.S. is grateful to the European Commission for financial support through the Nanomaterials for Application in Sensors, Catalysis and Emerging Technologies, NASCENT, Project within the Marie Curie Research Training Network (Contract No. MRTN-CT-2006-033873). P.J.C. gratefully acknowledges the support by the Marie Curie Fellowship within the EC Project Sensor Nanoparticles for Ions and Biomolecules SNIB (MTKD-CT-2005-029554).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subramanian Suriyanarayanan
    • 1
  • Piotr J. Cywinski
    • 2
    • 3
  • Artur J. Moro
    • 3
  • Gerhard J. Mohr
    • 4
  • Wlodzimierz Kutner
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Physical ChemistryPolish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Department of Physical ChemistryUniversity of PotsdamPotsdam-GolmGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Physical ChemistryFriedrich-Schiller-University JenaJenaGermany
  4. 4.Fraunhofer Institution for Modular Solid State Technologies EMFTWorkgroup Sensor MaterialsRegensburgGermany
  5. 5.Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, School of ScienceCardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in WarsawWarsawPoland
  6. 6.Institute of Physical ChemistryPolishAcademy of SciencesWarsawPoland

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