Advertisement

Exploring Electronic Transport in Molecular Junctions by Conducting Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Jeffrey M. Mativetsky
  • Matteo Palma
  • Paolo Samorì
Chapter
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 285)

Abstract

Measuring the electronic transport properties of single molecules and molecular nanostructuresis an interesting and challenging new frontier from both a fundamental as well as technologicalperspective. Conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) represents an attractive line of approachgiven its ability to position a sharp electrical probe with nanometer-scale precision and a controllednano-Newton-range force. Moreover, the combination of AFM imaging and C-AFM electrical characterizationenables investigation of the relationship between structure and function in molecular architectures.The aim of the present review is twofold: (1) to introduce the C-AFM method, alongside a discussionof experimental practices, capabilities and limitations, and (2) to provide an overview of the applicationof C-AFM to different types of molecular systems. These include alkane-based and oligomer-based self-assembledmonolayers, molecular crystals, conducting polymer films, molecular wires (e.g. carbon nanotubes),and electrically active biomolecules. We will also discuss C-AFM approaches that allow single moleculemeasurements as well as other recent developments.

Charge transport Conducting atomic force microscopy Molecular electronics Molecular wires Self-assembled monolayers  

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Joachim C, Gimzewski JK, Aviram A (2000) Nature 408:541 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tao NJ (2006) Nat Nanotechnol 1:173 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weibel N, Grunder S, Mayor M (2007) Org Biomolec Chem 5:2343 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nitzan A, Ratner MA (2003) Science 300:1384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salomon A, Cahen D, Lindsay S, Tomfohr J, Engelkes VB, Frisbie CD (2003) Adv Mater 15:1881 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carrol RL, Gorman CB (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:4378 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lindsay SM, Ratner MA (2007) Adv Mater 19:23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reed MA, Zhou C, Muller CJ, Burgin TP, Tour JM (1997) Science 278:252 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kergueris C, Bourgoin JP, Palacin S, Esteve D, Urbina C, Magoga M, Joachim C (1999) Phys Rev B 59:12505 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Slowinski K, Chamberlain RV, Miller CJ, Majda M (1997) J Am Chem Soc 119:11910 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haag R, Rampi MA, Holmlin RE, Whitesides GM (1999) J Am Chem Soc 121:7895 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holmlin RE, Haag R, Chabinyc ML, Ismagilov RF, Cohen AE, Terfort A, Rampi MA, Whitesides GM (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:5075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Selzer Y, Salomon A, Cahen D (2002) J Phys Chem B 106:10432 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen J, Reed MA, Rawlett AM, Tour JM (1999) Science 286:1550 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang WY, Lee T, Reed MA (2003) Phys Rev B 68:035416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee T, Wang WY, Klemic JF, Zhang JJ, Su J, Reed MA (2004) J Phys Chem B 108:8742 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kushmerick JG, Holt DB, Yang JC, Naciri J, Moore MH, Shashidhar R (2002) Phys Rev Lett 89:086802 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kushmerick JG, Holt DB, Pollack SK, Ratner MA, Yang JC, Schull TL, Naciri J, Moore MH, Shashidhar R (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:10654 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beebe JM, Kim B, Gadzuk JW, Frisbie CD, Kushmerick JG (2006) Phys Rev Lett 97:026801 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dadosh T, Gordin Y, Krahne R, Khivrich I, Mahalu D, Frydman V, Sperling J, Yacoby A, Bar-Joseph I (2005) Nature 436:677 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chu C, Na J-S, Parsons GN (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:2287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park H, Park J, Lim AKL, Anderson EH, Alivisatos AP, McEuen PL (2000) Nature 407:57 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kubatkin S, Danilov A, Hjort M, Cornil J, Bredas JL, Stuhr-Hansen N, Hedegard P, Bjornholm T (2004) Curr Appl Phys 4:554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liang WJ, Shores MP, Bockrath M, Long JR, Park H (2002) Nature 417:725 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Park J, Pasupathy AN, Goldsmith JI, Chang C, Yaish Y, Petta JR, Rinkoski M, Sethna JP, Abruna HD, McEuen PL, Ralph DC (2002) Nature 417:722 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pasupathy AN, Bialczak RC, Martinek J, Grose JE, Donev LAK, McEuen PL, Ralph DC (2004) Science 306:86 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wold DJ, Frisbie CD (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:5549 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li XL, He J, Hihath J, Xu BQ, Lindsay SM, Tao NJ (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:2135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rawlett AM, Hopson TJ, Nagahara LA, Tsui RK, Ramachandran GK, Lindsay SM (2002) Appl Phys Lett 81:3043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ramachandran GK, Hopson TJ, Rawlett AM, Nagahara LA, Primak A, Lindsay SM (2003) Science 300:1413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lau CN, Stewart DR, Williams RS, Bockrath M (2004) Nano Lett 4:569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Heimel G, Romaner L, Zojer E, Brédas JL (2007) Nano Lett 7:932 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Long DP, Lazorcik JL, Mantooth BA, Moore MH, Ratner MA, Troisi A, Yao Y, Ciszek JW, Tour JM, Shashidhar R (2006) Nat Mater 5:901 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xue YQ, Datta S, Ratner MA (2001) J Chem Phys 115:4292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nazin GV, Qiu XH, Ho W (2003) Science 302:77 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Samorì P, Severin N, Simpson CD, Müllen K, Rabe JP (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:9454 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Engelkes VB, Beebe JM, Frisbie CD (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:14287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cui XD, Primak A, Zarate X, Tomfohr J, Sankey OF, Moore AL, Moore TA, Gust D, Harris G, Lindsay SM (2001) Science 294:571 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Binnig G, Quate CF, Gerber C (1986) Phys Rev Lett 56:930 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takano H, Kenseth JR, Wong S-S, O’Brien JC, Porter MD (1999) Chem Rev 99:2845 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sheiko SS, Möller M (2001) Chem Rev 101:4099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Samorì P (2005) Chem Soc Rev 34:551 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Samorì P, Surin M, Palermo V, Lazzaroni R, Leclère P (2006) Phys Chem Chem Phys 8:3927 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhong Q, Innis D, Kjoller K, Elings VB (1993) Surf Sci Lett 290:L688 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Engelkes VB, Beebe JM, Frisbie CD (2005) J Phys Chem B 109:16801 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ishida T, Mizutani W, Aya Y, Ogiso H, Sasaki S, Tokumoto H (2002) J Phys Chem B 106:5886 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kelley TW, Frisbie CD (2000) J Vac Sci Technol, B 18:632 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Manoharan HC, Lutz CP, Eigler DM (2000) Nature 403:512 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lantz MA, Hug HJ, Hoffmann R, van Schendel PJA, Kappenberger P, Martin S, Baratoff A, Guntherodt HJ (2001) Science 291:2580 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Morita T, Lindsay S (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:7262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    O’Shea SJ, Atta RM, Welland ME (1995) Rev Sci Instr 66:2508 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Thomson RE, Moreland J (1995) J Vac Sci Technol, B 13:1123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Palermo V, Palma M, Samorì P (2006) Adv Mater 18:145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cui XD, Zarate X, Tomfohr J, Sankey OF, Primak A, Moore AL, Moore TA, Gust D, Harris G, Lindsay SM (2002) Nanotechnology 13:5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Song H, Lee C, Kang Y, Lee T (2006) Coll Surf a-Physicochem Eng Aspects 284:583 Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gomez-Navarro C, de Pablo PJ, Gomez-Herrero J (2006) J Mater Sci-Mater Electron 17:475 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kelley TW, Granstrom EL, Frisbie CD (1999) Adv Mater 11:261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Loiacono MJ, Granstrom EL, Frisbie CD (1998) J Phys Chem B 102:1679 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Planes J, Houze F, Chretien P, Schneegans O (2001) Appl Phys Lett 79:2993 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ionescu-Zanetti C, Mechler A, Carter SA, Lal R (2004) Adv Mater 16:385 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Alexeev A, Loos J, Koetse MM (2006) Ultramicroscopy 106:191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lee HJ, Park SM (2005) J Phys Chem B 109:13247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Munuera C, Barrena E, Ocal C (2007) Nanotechnology 18:125505 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wilson NR, Cobden DH, Macpherson JV (2002) J Phys Chem B 106:13102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wilson NR, Macpherson JV (2003) Nano Lett 3:1365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hafner JH, Cheung CL, Oosterkamp TH, Lieber CM (2001) J Phys Chem B 105:743 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hafner JH, Cheung CL, Woolley AT, Lieber CM (2001) Prog Biophys Molec Biol 77:73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jarvis SP, Oral A, Weihs TP, Pethica JB (1993) Rev Sci Instr 64:3515 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Xu BQ, Xiao XY, Tao NJ (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:16164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Engelkes VB, Frisbie CD (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:10011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gosvami N, Lau KHA, Sinha SK, O’Shea SJ (2006) Appl Surf Sci 252:3956 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ishida T, Mizutani W, Azehara H, Miyake K, Aya Y, Sasaki S, Tokumoto H (2002) Surf Sci 514:187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wakamatsu S, Akiba U, Fujihira M (2002) Jap J Appl Phys Part 1 – Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers 41:4998 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ishida T, Mizutani W, Liang TT, Azehara H, Miyake K, Sasaki S, Tokumoto H (2003) Molec Electron III 1006:164 (Ann NY Acade Sci) Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hudlet S, Saint Jean M, Guthmann C, Berger J (1998) Eur Phys J B 2:5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Love JC, Estroff LA, Kriebel JK, Nuzzo RG, Whitesides GM (2005) Chem Rev 105:1103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schreiber F (2000) Prog Surf Sci 65:151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ulman A (1996) Chem Rev 96:1533 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tao F, Bernasek SL (2007) Chem Rev 107:1408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kaun CC, Guo H (2003) Nano Lett 3:1521 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zahid F, Paulsson M, Polizzi E, Ghosh AW, Siddiqui L, Datta S (2005) J Chem Phys 123:064707 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ratner MA, Davis B, Kemp M, Mujica V, Roitberg A, Yaliraki S (1998) Molec Electron: Sci Technol 852:22 (Ann NY Acad Sci) Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Alamarguy D, Schneegans O, Noel S, Boyer L (2004) Appl Surf Sci 225:309 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Samorì P, Diebel J, Lowe H, Rabe JP (1999) Langmuir 15:2592 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hegner M, Wagner P, Semenza G (1993) Surf Sci 291:39 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stamou D, Gourdon D, Liley M, Burnham NA, Kulik A, Vogel H, Duschl C (1997) Langmuir 13:2425 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wagner P, Hegner M, Guntherödt HJ, Semenza G (1995) Langmuir 11:3867 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Blackstock JJ, Li ZY, Freeman MR, Stewart DR (2003) Surf Sci 546:87 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Simmons JG (1963) J Appl Phys 34:1793 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wold DJ, Haag R, Rampi MA, Frisbie CD (2002) J Phys Chem B 106:2813 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Song H, Lee H, Lee T (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:3806 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tian WD, Datta S, Hong SH, Reifenberger R, Henderson JI, Kubiak CP (1998) J Chem Phys 109:2874 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cui XD, Primak A, Zarate X, Tomfohr J, Sankey OF, Moore AL, Moore TA, Gust D, Nagahara LA, Lindsay SM (2002) J Phys Chem B 106:8609 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tomfohr J, Ramachandran GK, Sankey OF, Lindsay SM (2005) In: Cuniberti G, Fagas G, Richter K (eds) Introducing Molecular Electronics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 301 Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Beebe JM, Engelkes VB, Miller LL, Frisbie CD (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:11268 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Johnson KL (1987) Contact mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Huang ZF, Xu BQ, Chen YC, Di Ventra M, Tao NJ (2006) Nano Lett 6:1240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chen F, Li XL, Hihath J, Huang ZF, Tao NJ (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:15874 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kim B, Beebe JM, Jun Y, Zhu XY, Frisbie CD (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:4970 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mazur U, Hipps KW (1995) J Phys Chem 99:6684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Seferos DS, Blum AS, Kushmerick JG, Bazan GC (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:11260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kelley TW, Frisbie CD (2001) J Phys Chem B 105:4538 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nakamura M, Yanagisawa H, Kuratani S, Iizuka M, Kudo K (2003) Thin Solid Films 438:360 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Biscarini F, Zamboni R, Samorì P, Ostoja P, Taliani C (1995) Phys Rev B 52:14868 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Horowitz G, Garnier F, Yassar A, Hajlaoui R, Kouki F (1996) Adv Mater 8:52 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Horowitz G, Peng XZ, Fichou D, Garnier F (1990) J Appl Phys 67:528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Servet B, Ries S, Trotel M, Alnot P, Horowitz G, Garneir F (1993) Adv Mater 5:461 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Torsi L, Dodabalapur A, Rothberg LJ, Fung AWP, Katz HE (1996) Science 272:1462 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dimitrakopoulos CD, Malenfant PRL (2002) Adv Mater 14:99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Forrest SR (2004) Nature 428:911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Friend RH, Gymer RW, Holmes AB, Burroughes JH, Marks RN, Taliani C, Bradley DDC, Dos Santos DA, Bredas JL, Logdlund M, Salaneck WR (1999) Nature 397:121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Huitema HEA, Gelinck GH, van der Putten JBPH, Kuijk KE, Hart CM, Cantatore E, Herwig PT, van Breemen AJJM, de Leeuw DM (2001) Nature 414:599 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sirringhaus H, Brown PJ, Friend RH, Nielsen MM, Bechgaard K, Langeveldvoss BMW, Spiering AJH, Janssen RAJ, Meijer EW, Herwig P, De Leeuw DM (1999) Nature 401:685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cravino A, Sariciftci NS (2002) J Mat Chem 12:1931 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Schmidt-Mende L, Fechtenkötter A, Müllen K, Moons E, Friend RH, MacKenzie JD (2001) Science 293:1119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Friend RH, Gymer RW, Holmes AB, Burroughes JH, Marks RN, Taliani C, Bradley DDC, Dos Santos DA, Brédas JL, Logdlund M, Salaneck WR (1999) Nature 397:121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cacialli F, Wilson JS, Michels JJ, Daniel C, Silva C, Friend RH, Severin N, Samorì P, Rabe JP, O’Connell MJ, Taylor PN, Anderson HL (2002) Nat Mater 1:160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gustafsson G, Cao Y, Treacy GM, Klavetter F, Colaneri N, Heeger AJ (1992) Nature 357:477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mitschke U, Bäuerle P (2000) J Mater Chem 10:1471 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pei QB, Yu G, Zhang C, Yang Y, Heeger AJ (1995) Science 269:1086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wilson JS, Frampton MJ, Michels JJ, Sardone L, Marletta G, Friend RH, Samorì P, Anderson HL, Cacialli F (2005) Adv Mater 17:2659 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Muccini M (2006) Nat Mater 5:605 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Zaumseil J, Friend RH, Sirringhaus H (2006) Nat Mater 5:69 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Chiesa M, Burgi L, Kim JS, Shikler R, Friend RH, Sirringhaus H (2005) Nano Lett 5:559 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Samorì P (2006) Scanning Probe Microscopies Beyond Imaging: Manipulation of Molecules and Nanostructures. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lee HJ, Park SM (2004) J Phys Chem B 108:16365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lee HJ, Park SM (2004) J Phys Chem B 108:1590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Yamamoto SI, Ogawa K (2006) Surf Sci 600:4294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Han DH, Park SM (2004) J Phys Chem B 108:13921 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wu CG, Chang SS (2005) J Phys Chem B 109:825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hong SY, Park SM (2005) J Phys Chem B 109:9305 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Park SM, Cho SH (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:25656 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Pingree LSC, Hersam MC, Kern MM, Scott BJ, Marks TJ (2004) Appl Phys Lett 85:344 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lin HN, Lin HL, Wang SS, Yu LS, Perng GY, Chen SA, Chen SH (2002) Appl Phys Lett 81:2572 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Brandsch R, Bar G, Whangbo MH (1997) Langmuir 13:6349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Magonov SN, Elings V, Whangbo MH (1997) Surf Sci 375:L385 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Douheret O, Lutsen L, Swinnen A, Breselge M, Vandewal K, Goris L, Manca J (2006) Appl Phys Lett 89:032107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Coffey DC, Reid OG, Rodovsky DB, Bartholomew GP, Ginger DS (2007) Nano Lett 7:738 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Paul S, Kanwal A, Chhowalla M (2006) Nanotechnology 17:145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Zhong ZH, Wang DL, Cui Y, Bockrath MW, Lieber CM (2003) Science 302:1377 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Hoeben FJM, Jonkheijm P, Meijer EW, Schenning APHJ (2005) Chem Rev 105:1491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Leclère P, Surin M, Brocorens P, Cavallini M, Biscarini F, Lazzaroni R (2006) Mater Sci & Eng R-Reports 55:1 Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Samorì P, Engelkamp H, de Witte PAJ, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM, Rabe JP (2005) Adv Mater 17:1265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Samorì P, Francke V, Müllen K, Rabe JP (1999) Chem Eur J 5:2312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Samorì P, Rabe JP (2002) J Phys – Cond Mater 14:9955 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    de Pablo PJ, Colchero J, Luna M, Gomez-Herrero J, Baro AM (2000) Phys Rev B 61:14179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    de Pablo PJ, Gomez-Navarro C, Martinez MT, Benito AM, Maser WK, Colchero J, Gomez-Herrero J, Baro AM (2002) Appl Phys Lett 80:1462 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    de Pablo PJ, Gomez-Navarro C, Colchero J, Serena PA, Gomez-Herrero J, Baro AM (2002) Phys Rev Lett 88:036804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Park JY, Rosenblatt S, Yaish Y, Sazonova V, Ustunel H, Braig S, Arias TA, Brouwer PW, McEuen PL (2004) Nano Lett 4:517 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Dai H, Wong EW, Lieber CM (1996) Science 272:523 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Gomez-Navarro C, De Pablo PJ, Gomez-Herrero J, Biel B, Garcia-Vidal FJ, Rubio A, Flores F (2005) Nat Mater 4:534 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Krasheninnikov AV, Nordlund K, Sirvio M, Salonen E, Keinonen J (2001) Phys Rev B 63:245405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    de Pablo PJ, Martinez MT, Colchero J, Gomez-Herrero J, Maser WK, Benito AM, Munoz E, Baro AM (2000) Adv Mater 12:573 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gomez-Navarro C, de Pablo PJ, Gomez-Herrero J (2004) Adv Mater 16:549 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Livage J (1998) Coord Chem 178:999 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gomez-Navarro C, de Pablo PJ, Colchero J, Fan Y, Burghard M, Gomez-Herrero J, Baro AM (2003) Nanotechnology 14:134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Tan SS, Tang ZY, Liang XR, Kotov NA (2004) Nano Lett 4:1637 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Park JG, Lee SH, Kim B, Park YW (2002) Appl Phys Lett 81:4625 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Saha SK, Su YK, Lin CL, Jaw DW (2004) Nanotechnology 15:66 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Martin CR (1994) Science 266:1961 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Mativetsky JM, Datars WR (2002) Phys B – Cond Matter 324:191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Davis JJ, Morgan DA, Wrathmell CL, Axford DN, Zhao J, Wang N (2005) J Mater Chem 15:2160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Leatherman G, Durantini EN, Gust D, Moore TA, Moore AL, Stone S, Zhou Z, Rez P, Liu YZ, Lindsay SM (1999) J Phys Chem B 103:4006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Gittins DI, Bethell D, Schiffrin DJ, Nichols RJ (2000) Nature 408:67 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Tao NJ (1996) Phys Rev Lett 76:4066 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Zhao JW, Davis JJ, Sansom MSP, Hung A (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:5601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Watt GD, Frankel RB, Papaefthymiou GC (1985) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:3640 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Xu DG, Watt GD, Harb JN, Davis RC (2005) Nano Lett 5:571 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Xu B, Zhang P, Li X, Tao N (2004) Nano Lett 4:1105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Dandliker PJ, Holmlin RE, Barton JK (1997) Science 275:1465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Malyshev AV (2007) Phys Rev Lett 98:096801 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Boon EM, Ceres DM, Drummond TG, Hill MG, Barton JK (2000) Nat Biotechnol 18:1096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Dunlap DD, Garcia R, Schabtach E, Bustamante C (1993) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Porath D, Bezryadin A, de Vries S, Dekker C (2000) Nature 403:635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Fink HW, Schonenberger C (1999) Nature 398:407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Kasumov AY, Kociak M, Gueron S, Reulet B, Volkov VT, Klinov DV, Bouchiat H (2001) Science 291:280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Cohen H, Nogues C, Naaman R, Porath D (2005) Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 102:11589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Cohen H, Nogues C, Ullien D, Daube S, Naaman R, Porath D (2006) Faraday Discuss 131:367 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Nogues C, Cohen SR, Daube S, Apter N, Naaman R (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:8910 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Heim T, Deresmes D, Vuillaume D (2004) J Appl Phys 96:2927 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Tanaka S, Cai LT, Tabata H, Kawai T (2003) Jap J Appl Phys Part 1 – Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers 42:2818 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Gu JH, Tanaka S, Otsuka Y, Tabata H, Kawai T (2002) Appl Phys Lett 80:688 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Oura K (2003) Surface Science: an Introduction. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Uchihashi T, Ishida T, Komiyama M, Ashino M, Sugawara Y, Mizutani W, Yokoyama K, Morita S, Tokumoto H, Ishikawa M (2000) Appl Surf Sci 157:244 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Luthi R, Schlittler RR, Brugger J, Vettiger P, Welland ME, Gimzewski JK (1999) Appl Phys Lett 75:1314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Zahl P, Bammerlin M, Meyer G, Schlittler RR (2005) Rev Sci Instr 76:023707 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Egger S, Ilie A, Fu YT, Chongsathien J, Kang DJ, Welland ME (2005) Nano Lett 5:15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Gartner C, Hoffmann R, Perez-Willard F, Sauter M, Surgers C, von Lohneysen H (2006) Rev Sci Instr 77:099901 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Morita S, Wiesendanger R, Meyer E (2002) Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Loppacher C, Bammerlin M, Guggisberg M, Schar S, Bennewitz R, Baratoff A, Meyer E, Guntherodt HJ (2000) Phys Rev B 62:16944 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Sugimoto Y, Pou P, Abe M, Jelinek P, Perez R, Morita S, Custance O (2007) Nature 446:64 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Bennewitz R, Schar S, Barwich V, Pfeiffer O, Meyer E, Krok F, Such B, Kolodzej J, Szymonski M (2001) Surf Sci 474:L197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Burke SA, Mativetsky JM, Hoffmann R, Grutter P (2005) Phys Rev Lett 94:096102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Mativetsky JM, Burke SA, Fostner S, Grutter P (2007) Nanotechnology 18:105303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Xu S, Liu GY (1997) Langmuir 13:127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Amro NA, Xu S, Liu GY (2000) Langmuir 16:3006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Liang J, Sun Q, Selloni A, Scoles G (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:24797 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Xu S, Amro NA, Liu GY (2001) Appl Surf Sci 175:649 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Samorì P (2004) J Mater Chem 14:1353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Palermo V, Liscio A, Palma M, Surin M, Lazzaroni R, Samorì P (2007) Chem Comm, p 3326 Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Wold DJ, Frisbie CD (2000) J Am Chem Soc 122:2970 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey M. Mativetsky
    • 1
  • Matteo Palma
    • 1
  • Paolo Samorì
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut de Science et d’Ingénierie Supramoléculaires (ISIS) – CNRS7006Université Louis PasteurStrasbourgFrance
  2. 2.Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la FotoreattivitàConsiglio Nazionale delle RicercheBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations