A Hybrid Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Mobile Backbones

  • Ashish Pandey
  • Md. Nasir Ahmed
  • Nilesh Kumar
  • P. Gupta
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4297)

Abstract

A flat mobile ad hoc network has an inherent scalability limitation. When the network size increases, per node throughput of an ad hoc network rapidly decreases. This is due to the act that in large scale networks, flat structure of networks results in long hop paths which are prone to breaks. These long hop paths can be avoided by building a physically hierarchical backbone network. These networks have some specific backbone capable nodes that have powerful radios and are functionally more capable than ordinary nodes.

In this paper, a hybrid routing protocol for large scale networks with mobile backbones has been proposed. This routing protocol uses different types of routing schemes in different layers of hierarchical network which makes it easily extendable to support QoS as well. Along with hierarchical structure, a low-overhead clustering scheme to elect backbone nodes has been proposed and works with our routing protocol without causing any extra overhead.

Keywords

MANET clustering hierarchical routing quality of service 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmed, N., Gupta, P.: Predictive location based qos aware routing scheme for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks. Master’s Thesis Report (July 2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Banerjee, S., Khuller, S.: A clustering scheme for hierarchical control in multi-hop wireless networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE Infocom (April 2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z., Weiss, W.: An architecture for differentiated services. RFC 2475, IETF (December 1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Braden, R., Clark, D., Shenker, S.: Integrated services in the internet architecture: an overview. Request for Comments: 1633, IETF (June 1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Braden, R., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., Jamin, S.: Resource reservation protocol (RSVP)-version 1 functional specification. IETF RFC 2205 (September 1997)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nahrstedt, K., Chen, S.: Distributed quality-of-service routing in ad hoc networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication Special Issue on Ad hoc Networks 17(8), 1488–1505 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corson, S., Macker, J.: Mobile ad hoc networking (manet): Routing protocol performance issues and evaluation considerations. RFC 2501, IETF (January 1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Crawley, E., Nair, R., Rajagopalan, B., Sandrick, H.: A framework for qos based routing in the internet. RFC 2386 (August 1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fall, K. (ed.): ns notes Kannan Varadhan, and documentation. NS notes and documentation, the VINT Project, UC Brekeley, lbl, usc/isi, and xerox parc (November 1997), Available from: http://www-mash.cs.brekeley.edu/ns/
  10. 10.
    Gerla, M., Pei, G., Hong, X.: Lanmar: Landmark routing for large scale wireless and ad hoc networks with group mobility. In: Proceedings of ACM Mobihoc (August 2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gerla, M., Tsai, J.T.: Multicluster, mobile, multimedia radio network. ACM- Baltzer Journal of Wireless Networks 1(3), 255–265 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gupta, P., Kumar, P.R.: The capacity of wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 46(2) (March 2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hass, Z.J., Pearlman, M.R., Samar, P.: The zone routing protocol (zrp) for ad hoc networks. Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-04.txt, IETF (July 2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnson, D.B., Maltz, D.A.: Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In: Imielinski, Korth (eds.) Mobile Computing, vol. 353, pp. 152–181. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hong, X., Xu, K., Gerla, M.: An ad hoc network with mobile backbones. In: Proceedings of IEEE ICC 2002 (April 2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krishna, P., Vaidya, N.H., Chatterjee, M., Pradhan, D.K.: A cluster-based approach for routing in dynamic networks. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, pp. 372–378 (1997)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pandey, A., Kushwaha, S., Gupta, P., Hwang, C.J.: A Weighted Probabilistic Algorithm for Cluster based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In: Proceedings of IASTED International conference on Wireless Networks & Emerging Technologies (WNET 2003) held at Banff, Canada (July 2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hong, X., Gerla, M., Pei, G.: Landmark routing for large as hoc wireless networks. In: Proceeding of IEEE GLOBECOM 2000 (November 2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, J., Jian, M., Tay, Y.C.: Cluster based routing protocol (cbrp) functional specification. Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-00.txt.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murthy, S., Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.: An efficient routing protocol for wireless networks. ACM Mobile Networks and App. J., Special Issue on Routing in Mobile Communication Networks, 183–197 (October 1996)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Park, V.D., Corson, M.S.: A highly adaptive distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks. In: Proceedings of INFOCOM, pp. 1405–1413 (April 1997)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perkins, C.E., Royer, E.M.: Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing. In: Proceedings of 2nd IEEE Workshop of Mobile Comp. Systems and Applications, pp. 90–100 (February 1999)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Perkins, C., Bhagwat, P.: Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 1994 Conference on Communications Architectures, Protocols and Applications, pp. 234–244 (1994)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Das, S.R., Perkins, C., Royer, E.: Quality of service for ad hoc on-demand distance vector (aodv) routing. Internet-Draft (July 2000)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shah, S.H., Nahrstedt, K.: Predictive location-based qos routing in mobile ad hoc networks. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2001-2242/ UILU- ENG-2001-1749, Department of CS, UIUC (September 2001)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ahmed, M.N., Pandey, A., Kumar, N., Gupta, P.: Hybrid Routing Proto-col for Large Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Mobile Backbones. In: Proceedings of ADCOM 2004, Ahmedabad, India (December 2004)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xu, K., Hong, X., Gerla, M.: An ad hoc network with mobile back-bones. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2002), New York (April 2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashish Pandey
    • 1
  • Md. Nasir Ahmed
    • 1
  • Nilesh Kumar
    • 1
  • P. Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations