In this paper we present our continuing efforts to generate narrative using a character-centric approach. In particular we discuss the advantages of explicitly representing the emergent event sequence in order to be able to exert influence on it and generate stories that ‘retell’ the emergent narrative. Based on a narrative distinction between fabula, plot and presentation, we make a first step by presenting a model based on story comprehension that can capture the fabula, and show how it can be used for the automatic creation of stories.


Case Base Reasoning Narrative Text Internal Element Digital Storytelling Physical Causality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Theune, M., Rensen, S., op den Akker, R., Heylen, D., Nijholt, A.: Emotional characters for automatic plot creation. In: Göbel, S., Spierling, U., Hoffmann, A., Iurgel, I., Schneider, O., Dechau, J., Feix, A. (eds.) TIDSE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3105, pp. 95–100. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Louchart, S., Aylett, R.: Narrative theory and emergent interactive narrative. Int. J. Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning 14, 506–518 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bal, M.: Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative, 2nd edn. University of Toronto Press (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sgouros, N.M.: Dynamic generation, management and resolution of interactive plots. Artificial Intelligence 107, 29–62 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Theune, M., Hielkema, F., Hendriks, P.: Performing aggregation and ellipsis using discourse structures. Research on Language and Computation Special Issue on Cross-Modular Approaches to Ellipsis (to appear, 2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Theune, M., Meijs, K., Heylen, D., Ordelman, R.: Generating expressive speech for storytelling applications. IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing 14, 1137–1144 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kelso, M.T., Weyhrauch, P., Bates, J.: Dramatic presence. PRESENCE: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 2, 1–15 (1993)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Propp, V.: De morfologie van het toversprookje: vormleer van een genre. In: Spectrum, Utrecht (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van Dijk, T.A.: Story comprehension: An introduction. Poetics 9, 1–21 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Damiano, R., Lombardo, V., Pizzo, A.: Formal encoding of drama ontology. In: Subsol, G. (ed.) ICVS-VirtStory 2005. LNCS, vol. 3805, pp. 95–104. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tuffield, M.M., Millard, D.E., Shadbolt, N.R.: Ontological approaches to modelling narrative. In: Proceedings of 2nd AKT DTA Symposium (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Turner, S.R.: The creative process: a computer model of storytelling. In: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ (1994)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Riedl, M.O.: Narrative Generation: Balancing Plot and Character. PhD thesis, North Carolina State University (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Trabasso, T., Van den Broek, P., Suh, S.Y.: Logical necessity and transitivity of causal relations in stories. Discourse Processes 12, 1–25 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Trabasso, T., Nickels, M.: The development of goal plans of action in the narration of a picture story. Discourse Processes 15, 249–275 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tapiero, I., Van den Broek, P., Quintana, M.P.: The mental representation of narrative texts as networks: The role of necessity and sufficiency in the detection of different types of causal relations. Discourse Processes 34, 237–258 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cheong, Y.G., Young, R.M.: A computational model of narrative generation for suspense. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2006) (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Slabbers, N.: Narration for virtual storytelling. Master’s thesis, University of Twente (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meehan, J.: TALE-SPIN. In: Schank, R., Riesbeck, K. (eds.) Inside computer understanding - five programs plus miniatures, pp. 197–226. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (1981)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blumberg, B., Gaylean, T.: Multi-level control for animated autonomous agents: Do the right thing.. oh, not that.. In: Trappl, R., Petta, P. (eds.) Creating Personalities for Synthetic Actors: Towards Autonomous Personality Agents, pp. 74–82. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Riedl, M.O., Young, R.M.: Open-world planning for story generation. In: International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), pp. 1719–1720 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivo Swartjes
    • 1
  • Mariët Theune
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Media Interaction groupUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations