Believable Agents and Intelligent Story Adaptation for Interactive Storytelling

  • Mark O. Riedl
  • Andrew Stern
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4326)


Interactive Narrative is an approach to interactive entertainment that enables the player to make decisions that directly affect the direction and/or outcome of the narrative experience being delivered by the computer system. Interactive narrative requires two seemingly conflicting requirements: coherent narrative and user agency. We present an interactive narrative system that uses a combination of narrative control and autonomous believable character agents to augment a story world simulation in which the user has a high degree of agency with narrative plot control. A drama manager called the Automated Story Director gives plot-based guidance to believable agents. The believable agents are endowed with the autonomy necessary to carry out directives in the most believable fashion possible. Agents also handle interaction with the user. When the user performs actions that change the world in such a way that the Automated Story Director can no longer drive the intended narrative forward, it is able to adapt the plot to incorporate the user’s changes and still achieve dramatic goals.


Multi Agent System Plan Step Interactive Drama Game Engine Character Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aylet, R.: Emergent narrative, social immersion and storification. In: Proc. of the 1st International Workshop on Narrative and Interactive Learning Environments (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bates, J.: Virtual Reality, Art, and Entertainment. Presence: The Journal of Tele-operators and Virtual Environments 1 (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cavazza, M., Charles, F., Mead, S.: Planning Characters’ Behaviour in Interactive Storytelling. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 13, 121–131 (2002)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kelso, M., Weyhrauch, P., Bates, J.: Dramatic Presence. Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 2 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Louchart, S., Aylett, R., Dias, J., Paiva, A.: Unscripted narrative for affectively driven characters. In: Proc. of the 1st National Conf. on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loyall, A.B.: Believable Agents: Building Interactive Personalities. Ph.D. Dissertation, Carnegie Mellon University (1997)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Magerko, B.: Story Representation and Interactive Drama. In: Proc. of the 1st Conf. on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marsella, S., Johnson, W.L., LaBore, K.: Interactive Pedagogical Drama. In: Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Towards Integrating Plot and Character for Interactive Drama. AAAI Spring Symposium on Social Intelligent Agents: The Human in the Loop (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Architecture, Authorial Idioms and Early Observations of the Interactive Drama Façade (Technical Report CMU-CS-02-198). School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: A Behavior Language: Joint Action and Behavior Idioms. In: Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) Life-like Characters: Tools, Affective Functions and Applications, Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mott, B.W., Lester, J.C.: U-Director: A Decision-Theoretic Narrative Planning Architecture for Storytelling Environments. In: Proc. of the 5th Int. Joint Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Riedl, M.O.: Towards Integrating AI Story Controllers and Game Engines: Reconciling World State Representations. In: Proc. of the IJCAI Workshop on Reasoning, Representation and Learning in Computer Games (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Riedl, M.O., Saretto, C.J., Young, R.M.: Managing Interaction Between Users and Agents in a Multi-Agent Storytelling Environment. In: Proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sengers, P.: Schizophrenia and Narrative in Artificial Agents. In: Mateas, M., Sengers, P. (eds.) Narrative Intelligence, John Benjamins, Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Si, M., Marsella, S., Pynadath, D.V.: Thespian: Using multi-agent fitting to craft interactive drama. In: Proc. of the 4th Int. Joint Conf. on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Szilas, N.: IDtension: a narrative engine for interactive drama. In: Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. on Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tambe, M.: Towards Flexible Teamwork. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 7 (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weld, D.: An Introduction to Least Commitment Planning. AI Magazine 15 (1994)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Weyhrauch, P.: Guiding Interactive Fiction. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Young, R.M., Riedl, M.O., Branly, M., Jhala, A., Martin, R.J., Saretto, C.J.: An Architecture for Integrating Plan-Based Behavior Generation with Interactive Game Environments. Journal of Game Development 1, 51–70 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark O. Riedl
    • 1
  • Andrew Stern
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Creative TechnologiesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaUSA
  2. 2.Procedural Arts LLCPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations