Finding SHA-1 Characteristics: General Results and Applications

  • Christophe De Cannière
  • Christian Rechberger
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4284)

Abstract

The most efficient collision attacks on members of the SHA family presented so far all use complex characteristics which were manually constructed by Wang et al. In this report, we describe a method to search for characteristics in an automatic way. This is particularly useful for multi-block attacks, and as a proof of concept, we give a two-block collision for 64-step SHA-1 based on a new characteristic. The highest number of steps for which a SHA-1 collision was published so far was 58. We also give a unified view on the expected work factor of a collision search and the needed degrees of freedom for the search, which facilitates optimization.

References

  1. 1.
    Biham, E., Chen, R.: Near-Collisions of SHA-0. In: Franklin, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 2004. LNCS, vol. 3152, pp. 290–305. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Biham, E., Chen, R., Joux, A., Carribault, P., Lemuet, C., Jalby, W.: Collisions of SHA-0 and Reduced SHA-1. In: Cramer, R.J.F. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 36–57. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Black, J.A., Cochran, M., Highland, T.: A Study of the MD5 Attacks: Insights and Improvements. In: Robshaw, M.J.B. (ed.) FSE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4047, pp. 262–277. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chabaud, F., Joux, A.: Differential Collisions in SHA-0. In: Krawczyk, H. (ed.) CRYPTO 1998. LNCS, vol. 1462, pp. 56–71. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jutla, C.S., Patthak, A.C.: Provably Good Codes for Hash Function Design. In: Biham, E., Youssef, A.M. (eds.) SAC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4356, pp. 376–393. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kelsey, J., Kohno, T.: Herding Hash Functions and the Nostradamus Attack. In: Vaudenay, S. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2006. LNCS, vol. 4004, pp. 183–200. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Klima, V.: Tunnels in Hash Functions: MD5 Collisions Within a Minute. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2006/105 (2006), http://eprint.iacr.org/
  8. 8.
    Liang, J., Lai, X.: Improved Collision Attack on Hash Function MD5. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2005/425 (2005), http://eprint.iacr.org/
  9. 9.
    Naito, Y., Sasaki, Y., Kunihiro, N., Ohta, K.: Improved Collision Attack on MD4. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2005/151 (2005), http://eprint.iacr.org/
  10. 10.
    Naito, Y., Sasaki, Y., Shimoyama, T., Yajima, J., Kunihiro, N., Ohta, K.: Message Modification for Step 21-23 on SHA-0. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2006/016 (2006), http://eprint.iacr.org/
  11. 11.
    National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). FIPS-180-2: Secure Hash Standard (August 2002), Available online at: http://www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/
  12. 12.
    Pramstaller, N., Rechberger, C., Rijmen, V.: Exploiting Coding Theory for Collision Attacks on SHA-1. In: Smart, N.P. (ed.) Cryptography and Coding 2005. LNCS, vol. 3796, pp. 78–95. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rijmen, V., Oswald, E.: Update on SHA-1. In: Menezes, A. (ed.) CT-RSA 2005. LNCS, vol. 3376, pp. 58–71. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schläffer, M., Oswald, E.: Searching for Differential Paths in MD4. In: Robshaw, M.J.B. (ed.) FSE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4047, pp. 242–261. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stevens, M.: Fast Collision Attack on MD5. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2006/104 (2006), http://eprint.iacr.org/
  16. 16.
    Sugita, M., Kawazoe, M., Imai, H.: Gröbner Basis Based Cryptanalysis of SHA-1. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2006/098 (2006), http://eprint.iacr.org/
  17. 17.
    Wang, X., Lai, X., Feng, D., Chen, H., Yu, X.: Cryptanalysis of the Hash Functions MD4 and RIPEMD. In: Cramer, R.J.F. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 1–18. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang, X., Yao, A., Yao, F.: Cryptanalysis of SHA-1. In: The Cryptographic Hash Workshop hosted by NIST (October 2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang, X., Yao, A., Yao, F.: New Collision Search for SHA-1. In: Rump session of CRYPTO (August 2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang, X., Yin, Y.L., Yu, H.: Finding Collisions in the Full SHA-1. In: Shoup, V. (ed.) CRYPTO 2005. LNCS, vol. 3621, pp. 17–36. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang, X., Yu, H.: How to Break MD5 and Other Hash Functions. In: Cramer, R. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 19–35. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang, X., Yu, H., Yin, Y.L.: Efficient Collision Search Attacks on SHA-0. In: Shoup, V. (ed.) CRYPTO 2005. LNCS, vol. 3621, pp. 1–16. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yin, Y.L.: Personal Communication (March 2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christophe De Cannière
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christian Rechberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Applied Information Processing and CommunicationsGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  2. 2.Dept. ESAT/SCD-COSICKatholieke Universiteit LeuvenHeverleeBelgium

Personalised recommendations