As an emerging solution to the handling of complex and evolving software systems, Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is still very much in evolution. The industrial demand is quite high while the research answer for a sound set of foundation principles is still far from being stabilized. Therefore it is important to provide a current state of the art in MDE, describing what its origins are, what its present state is, and where it seems to be presently leading. One important question is how MDE relates to other contemporary technologies. This tutorial proposes the ”technical space” concept to this purpose. The two main objectives are to present first the basic MDE principles and second how these principles may be mapped onto modern platform support. Other issues that will be discussed are the applicability of these ideas, concepts, and tools to solve current practical problems. Various organizations and companies (OMG, IBM, Microsoft, etc.) are currently proposing several environments claiming to support MDE. Among these, the OMG MDATM(Model Driven Architecture) has a special place since it was historically one of the original proposals in this area. This work focuses on the identification of basic MDE principles, practical characteristics of MDE (direct representation, automation, and open standards), original MDE scenarios, and discussions of suitable tools and methods.


Model Driven Engineering MDE MDA Metamodeling Technical Spaces 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    ATL, ATLAS Transformation Language Reference site,
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Batini, C., Lenzerini, M., Navathe, S.B.: A Comparative Analysis of Methodologies for Database Schema Integration. ACM Computing Surveys 18(4), 323–364 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernstein, P.A., Levy, A.Y., Pottinger, R.A.: A Vision for Management of Complex Systems, MSR-TR-2000-53, Microsoft Research, Redmond, USA,
  5. 5.
    Bézivin, J., Lemesle, R.: The sBrowser: a Prototype Meta-Browser for Model Engineering. In: Proceedings of OOPSLA 1998, Vancouver, Canada (October 18-22, 1998),
  6. 6.
    Bézivin, J.: From Object Composition to Model Transformation with the MDA TOOLS’USA 2001, Santa Barbara. IEEE publications TOOLS’39 (August 2001),
  7. 7.
    Bézivin, J.: In search of a Basic Principle for Model Driven Engineering. Novatica/Upgrade 2, 21–24 (April 2004),
  8. 8.
    Bézivin, J., Lemesle, R.: Towards a true reflective modeling scheme. In: Cazzola, W., Stroud, R.J., Tisato, F. (eds.) Reflection and Software Engineering. LNCS, vol. 1826, p. 21. Springer, Heidelberg (2000), CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bézivin, J.: sNets: A First Generation Model Engineering Platform. In: Bruel, J.-M. (ed.) MoDELS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3844, pp. 169–181. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bézivin, J., Gérard, S., Muller, P.A., Rioux, L.: MDA Components: Challenges and Opportunities. Metamodelling for MDA. In: First International Workshop, York, UK (November 2003),
  11. 11.
    Bézivin, J., Gerbé, O.: Towards a Precise Definition of the OMG/MDA Framework. In: ASE 2001, San Diego, USA (November 26-29, 2001),
  12. 12.
    Bézivin, J., Hillairet, G., Jouault, F., Kurtev, I., Piers, W.: Bridging the MS/DSL Tools and the eclipse EMF Framework. In: OOPSLA Workshop on Software Factories,
  13. 13.
    Bézivin, J., Jouault, F., Valduriez, P.: On the Need for Megamodels, OOPSLA & GPCE. In: Workshop on best MDSD practices, Vancouver, Canada (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bisbal, J., Lawless, D., Wu, B., Grimson, J.: Legacy Information Systems: Issues and Directions. IEEE Software 16(5), 103–111 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Booch, G., Brown, A., Iyengar, S., Rumbaugh, J., Selic, B.: The IBM MDA Manifesto The MDA Journal (May 2004),
  16. 16.
    Bouquet, P., Giunchiglia, F., Van Harmelen, F., Serafini, L., Stuckenschmidt, H.: Contextualizing Ontologies. Journal of Web Semantics 1(4), 1–19 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eclipse Modeling Framework,
  18. 18.
    Ehrig, M., York Sure: Ontology mapping - an integrated approach. In: Bussler, C.J., Davies, J., Fensel, D., Studer, R. (eds.) ESWS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3053, pp. 76–91. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    GMT, General Model Transformer Eclipse Project,
  20. 20.
    Greenfield, J., Short, K., Cook, S., Kent, S.: Software Factories. Wiley, Chichester (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Helland, P.: Data on the outside versus data on the inside. In: 2005 CIDR Conference (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kementsietsidis, A., Arenas, M., Miller, R.J.: Mapping Data in Peer-to-Peer Systems: Semantics and Algorithmic Issues. In: Proceedings of the SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD 2003), San Diego, USA, pp. 325–336 (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Klint, P., Lämmel, R., Kort, J., Klusener, S., Verhoef, C., Verhoeven, E.J.: Engineering of Grammarware,
  24. 24.
    Kurtev, I., Bézivin, J., Aksit, M.: Technical Spaces: An Initial Appraisal. In: CoopIS, DOA 2002 Federated Conferences, Industrial track, Irvine (2002),
  25. 25.
    Lenzerini, M.: Data integration: a theoretical perspective. In: Proceedings of the twenty-first ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGART symposium on Principles of database systems, Madison, Wisconsin, June 03-05 (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miller, R.J., Hernandez, M.A., Haas, L.M., Yan, L.-L., Ho, C.T.H., Fagin, R., Popa, L.: The Clio Project: Managing Heterogeneity. SIGMOD Record 30(1), 78–83 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Omelayenko, B.: RDFT: A Mapping Meta-Ontology for Business Integration. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Knowledge Transformation for the Semantic Web (KTSW 2002) at the 15th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Lyon, France, July 23, pp. 76–83 (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    OMG/MOF Meta Object Facility (MOF) Specification. OMG Document AD/97-08-14 (September 1997), Available from:
  29. 29.
    OMG/RFP/QVT MOF 2.0 Query/Views/Transformations RFP, OMG document ad/2002-04-10, Available from:
  30. 30.
    OMG/XMI XML Model Interchange (XMI) OMG Document AD/98-10-05 (October 1998), Available from:
  31. 31.
    Seidewitz, E.: What do models mean? IEEE Software 20(5) (September/October 2003)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Soley, R., the OMG staff.: Model-Driven Architecture, OMG Document (November 2000),
  33. 33.
    Sun Java Community Process JMI Java MetaData Interface Specification, Available from:
  34. 34.
    Velegrakis, Y., Miller, R.J., Popa, L.: Adapting Mappings in Frequently Changing Environments. In: Int. Conf of Very Large Databases (VLDB) (September 2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Bézivin
    • 1
  1. 1.Atlas Group: INRIA, and LINAUniversity of NantesNantes Cedex 3France

Personalised recommendations