Implementations of Square-Root and Exponential Functions for Large FPGAs
This paper discusses low-error, high-speed evaluation of two elementary functions: square-root (which is required in IEEE-754 standard on computer arithmetic) and exponential (which is common in scientific calculations). The basis of the proposed implementations is piecewise-linear interpolation but with the constants chosen in a way that minimizes relative error. We show that by placing certain constraints on the errors at three points within each interpolation interval, relative errors are greatly reduced. The implementation-targets are large FPGAs that have in-built multipliers, adders, and distributed memory.
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