Advertisement

Hitchers: Designing for Cellular Positioning

  • Adam Drozd
  • Steve Benford
  • Nick Tandavanitj
  • Michael Wright
  • Alan Chamberlain
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4206)

Abstract

Hitchers is a game for mobile phones that exploits cellular positioning to support location-based play. Players create digital hitch hikers, giving them names, destinations and questions to ask other players, and then drop them into their current phone cell. Players then search their current cell for hitchers, pick them up, answer their questions, carry them to new locations and drop them again, providing location-labels as hint to where they can be found. In this way, hitchers pass from player to player, phone to phone and cell to cell, gathering information and encouraging players to label cells with meaningful place names. A formative study of Hitchers played by 47 players over 4 months shows how the seams in cellular positioning, including varying cell size, density and overlap, affected the experience. Building on previous discussions of designing for uncertainty and seamful design, we consider five ways of dealing with these seams: removing, hiding, managing, revealing and exploiting them. This leads us to propose the mechanism of a dynamic search focus, to explore new visualization tools for cellular data, and to reconsider the general relationship between ‘virtual’ and ‘physical’ worlds in location-based games.

Keywords

Mobile games cellular positioning ubiquitous computing seamful design 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Barkhuus, L., Chalmers, M., Tennent, P., Hall, M., Bell, M., Sherwood, S., Brown, B.: Picking pockets on the lawn: The development of tactics and strategies in a mobile game. In: Beigl, M., Intille, S.S., Rekimoto, J., Tokuda, H. (eds.) UbiComp 2005. LNCS, vol. 3660, pp. 358–374. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bell, M., Chalmers, M., Barkhuus, L., Hall, M., Sherwood, S., Brown, B., et al.: Interweaving Mobile Games With Everyday Life. In: Proc CHI 2006, Montreal, Canada. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benford, S., et al.: The error of our ways: The experience of self-reported position in a location-based game. In: Davies, N., Mynatt, E.D., Siio, I. (eds.) UbiComp 2004. LNCS, vol. 3205, pp. 70–87. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benford, S., et al.: Life on the edge: supporting collaboration in location-based experiences. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005, pp. 721–730 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benford, S., et al.: Can You See Me Now? ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 13(1) (March 2006) (article 4)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chalmers, M., Galani, A.: Seamful Interweaving: Heterogeneity in the Theory and Design of Interactive Systems. In: ACM DIS 2004, pp. 243–252 (August 2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cheok, A., Goh, K., Farbiz, F., Fong, S., Teo, S., Li, Y., Yang, X.: Human Pacman: A Mobile, Wide-Area Entertainment System Based On Physical, Social And Ubiquitous Computing. Personal And Ubiquitous Computing 8(2), 71–81 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fruchterman, M.J., Reingold, E.M.: Graph Drawing by Force-directed Placement. Software - Practice and Experience 21(11), 1129–1164 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hightower, J., Consolvo, S., LaMarca, A., Smith, I., Hughes, J.: Learning and Recognizing the Places We Go. In: Beigl, M., Intille, S.S., Rekimoto, J., Tokuda, H. (eds.) UbiComp 2005. LNCS, vol. 3660, pp. 159–176. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Joffe, B.: Mogi: Location and Presence in a Pervasive Community Game. In: Proc. Ubicomp Workshop on Ubiquitous Gaming and Entertainment (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laasonen, K., Raento, M., Toivonen, H.: Adaptive On-Device Location Recognition. In: Ferscha, A., Mattern, F. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3001, pp. 287–304. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McGonigal, J.: A Real Little Game: The Performance of Belief in Pervasive Play. In: Digital Games Research Associaton (DiGRA) Level Up Conference Proceedings, Utrecht (November 2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Piekarski, W., And Thomas, B.: ARQuake: The Outdoors Augmented Reality System. Communications Of The ACM 45(1), 36–38 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smith, I., et al.: Social Disclosure of Place: From Location Technology to Communication Practices. In: Gellersen, H.-W., Want, R., Schmidt, A. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2005. LNCS, vol. 3468, pp. 134–151. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Trevisani, E., Vitaletti, A.: Cell-id location technique, limits and benefits. In: Proc. IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Java JGraph Library (verified, April 2006), http://www.jgraph.com

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam Drozd
    • 1
  • Steve Benford
    • 1
  • Nick Tandavanitj
    • 2
  • Michael Wright
    • 1
  • Alan Chamberlain
    • 1
  1. 1.The Mixed Reality LaboratoryUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Blast TheoryBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations