Facial Shadow Removal
In this paper we demonstrate how to recover surface shape from single images of faces using shape-from-shading when shadows are present. We make use of a statistical representation of the distribution of surface normal directions based on the equidistant azimuthal projection. This is allows us to develop a statistical model of the variations in facial shape in the surface normal domain. We show how ideas from robust statistics can be used to fit the model to facial images in which there is significant self-shadowing. The method is evaluated on both synthetic and real-world images. It is demonstrated to effectively fill-in the facial surface when more than 30% of the area is subject to self-shadowing.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Zhao, W.Y., Chellappa, R.: Illumination-insensitive face recognition using symmetric SFS. In: Proc. CVPR, pp. 286–293 (2000)Google Scholar
- 2.Blanz, V., Vetter, T.: Face recognition based on fitting a 3D morphable model. IEEE Trans. PAMI 25, 1063–1074 (2003)Google Scholar
- 4.Smith, W., Hancock, E.R.: Recovering facial shape and albedo using a statistical model of surface normal direction. In: Proc. ICCV, pp. 588–595 (2005)Google Scholar
- 5.Georghiades, A., Belhumeur, P., Kriegman, D.: From few to many: Illumination cone models for face recognition under variable lighting and pose. IEEE Trans. PAMI 23, 643–660 (2001)Google Scholar
- 6.Snyder, J.P.: Map Projections–A Working Manual, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 1395. United States Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. (1987)Google Scholar
- 7.Cootes, T.F., Taylor, C.J., Cooper, D., Graham, J.: Training models of shape from sets of examples. In: Proc. BMVC, pp. 9–18 (1992)Google Scholar
- 8.Smith, W., Robles-Kelly, A., Hancock, E.R.: Reflectance correction for perspiring faces. In: Proc. ICIP, pp. 1389–1392 (2004)Google Scholar
- 9.Worthington, P.L., Hancock, E.R.: New constraints on data-closeness and needle map consistency for shape-from-shading. IEEE Trans. PAMI 21, 1250–1267 (1999)Google Scholar
- 12.USF HumanID 3D Face Database, Courtesy of Sudeep. Sarkar, University of South Florida, Tampa, FLGoogle Scholar