Efficient View Management for Dynamic Annotation Placement in Virtual Landscapes

  • Stefan Maass
  • Jürgen Döllner
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4073)


We present a dynamic placement technique for annotations of virtual landscapes that is based on efficient view management. Annotations represent textual or symbolic descriptions and provide explanatory or thematic information associated with spatial positions. The technique handles external annotations as 2.5 dimensional objects and adjusts their positions with respect to available space in the view-plane. The approach intends to place labels without occlusions and, if this cannot be achieved, favors those annotations that are close to the observer. This technique solves the visibility problem of annotations in an approximate but user-centric way. It operates in real-time and therefore can be applied to interactive virtual landscapes. Additionally, the approach can be configured to fine tune the trade off between placement quality and processing time with a single parameter.


Anchor Point View Plane Pole Line Placement Process Screen Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ali, K., Hartmann, K., Strothotte, T.: Label Layout for Interactive 3D Illustrations. Journal of the WSCG 13(1), 1–8 (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bell, B., Feiner, S.: Dynamic Space Management for User Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 13th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), San Diego, CA. CHI Letters, vol. 2, pp. 239–248 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bell, B., Feiner, S., Höllerer, T.: View Management for Virtual and Augmented Reality. In: Proceedings of the 14th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pp. 101–110. ACM Press, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chigona, W., Schlechtweg, S., Thomas, S.: Dual Use of Image Space: The Challenges of Explaining Visualizations from Within. In: Schulze, T., Schlechtweg, S., Hinz, V. (eds.) Simulation und Visualisierung 2001, SCS-Society for Computer Simulation Int., Delft, Belgium, pp. 175–185 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Christensen, J., Marks, J., Shieber, S.: An Empirical Study of Algorithms for Point-Feature Label Placement. ACM Transactions on Graphics 14(3), 203–232 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ebner, D., Klau, W.K., Weiskircher, R.: Force-Based Label Number Maximization. Technical Report TR-186-1-03-02, Technical University Vienna pdf/ebner-03.pdf (June 2003), available at:
  7. 7.
    Edmondson, S., Christensen, J., Marks, J., Shieber, S.M.: A general cartographic labeling algorithm. TR1996-004, Cartographica 33(4), 13–23 (1996), available at: Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greene, N., Kass, M., Miller, G.: Hierarchical Z-Buffer Visibility. Computer Graphics 27(Annual Conference Series), 231–238 (1993)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hartmann, K., Ali, K., Strothotte, T.: Floating Labels: Applying Dynamic Potential Fields for Label Layout. In: Butz, A., Krüger, A., Olivier, P. (eds.) SG 2004. LNCS, vol. 3031, pp. 101–113. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hartmann, K., Götzelman, T., Ali, K., Strothotte, T.: Metrics for Functional and Aesthetic Label Layouts. In: Butz, A., Fisher, B., Krüger, A., Olivier, P. (eds.) SG 2005. LNCS, vol. 3638, pp. 115–126. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kolbe, T.H.: Augmented Videos and Panoramas for Pedestrian Navigation. In: Gartner, G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Location Based Services and TeleCartography (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maass, S., Döllner, J.: Dynamic Annotation of Interactive Environments using Object-Integrated Billboards. In: Jorge, J., Skala, V. (eds.) 14-th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision, WSCG 2006, Plzen, Czech Republic, pp. 327–334 (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marks, J., Shieber, S.: The Computational Complexity of Cartographic Label Placement. Technical Report TR-05-91. Harvard University (1991)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Müller, S., Schödl, A.: A Smart Algorithm for Column Chart Labeling. In: Butz, A., Fisher, B., Krüger, A., Olivier, P. (eds.) SG 2005. LNCS, vol. 3638, pp. 127–137. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Preim, B., Raab, A., Strothotte, T.: Coherent Zooming of Illustrations with 3D-Graphics and Textual Labels. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface, pp. 105–113 (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ritter, F., Sonnet, H., Hartmann, K., Strothotte, T.: Illustrative Shadows: Integrating 3D and 2D Information Displays. In: IUI 2003: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 166–173. ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sonnet, H., Carpendale, S., Strothotte, T.: Integrating Expanding Annotations with a 3D Explosion Probe. In: AVI 2004: Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, pp. 63–70. ACM Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Maass
    • 1
  • Jürgen Döllner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Graphics SystemsUniversity of Potsdam, Hasso-Plattner-InstitutePotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations