Implicatures and Evidentiality of Because Complements at Syntax-Semantics-Pragmatics Interfaces

  • Yurie Hara
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4012)


The Japanese contrastive marker wa can appear within a because-clause as in (1a), while it cannot appear within temporal clauses like toki ‘when’ as in (1b) and if-clauses (omitted for space reasons).

(1) a. Itsumo uchi-ni Mary-wa kuru node kodomo-ga always house-Dat Mary-CTop come because, children-Nom yorokob-u. happy-Present

‘Because Mary CTop always comes to our house, the children are happy.’

b. *Itsumo uchi-ni Mary-wa kuru toki, keeki-o motteku-ru. always house-Dat Mary-CTop come when, cake-Acc bring-Present ‘When Mary CTop comes to our house, she always brings a cake.

Interestingly, the same asymmetry is found with an evidential morpheme.

(2) a. Kodomo-ga kuru sounanode, oyatsu-o youi-shita. children-Nom come Evid because, sweets-Acc preparation-di ‘Because I heard that children are coming, I prepared sweets.’

b. * Kodomo-ga kuru sounatoki, oyatsu-o youi-shita. children-Nom come Evid when, sweets-Acc preparation-did ‘When I heard that children are coming, I prepared sweets.’


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yurie Hara
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Delaware 

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