Discovering Remote Software Services that Satisfy Requirements: Patterns for Query Reformulation

  • Nektarios Dourdas
  • Xiaohong Zhu
  • Neil Maiden
  • Sara Jones
  • Konstantinos Zachos
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4001)


Developing service-centric applications will require developers to discover candidate services during requirements processes. However such discovery is challenging due to the ontological mismatch between requirement and service descriptions. We propose patterns to re-express requirements-based service queries using classes of solution service, to increase the likelihood of discovering relevant services from service registries. We report a prototype pattern language developed for service-based vehicle fleet management, and demonstrate its use with an example.


Service Discovery Query Expansion Software Service Service Description Word Sense 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alexander, C.: The Timeless Way of Building. Oxford University Press, NY (1979)Google Scholar
  2. Baeza-Yates, R., Ribiero-Neto, B.: Modern Information Retrieval. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1999)Google Scholar
  3. Dourdas, N.: A Pattern Language for Vehicle Fleet Management in DaimlerChrysler, MSc Thesis, Department Information Science, City University, London (September 2005)Google Scholar
  4. Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J.: Design Patterns – Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1995)Google Scholar
  5. Jackson, M.: Software Requirements and Specifications. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1995)Google Scholar
  6. Jacobson, I., Booch, G., Rumbaugh, J.: The Unified Software Development Process. Addison-Wesley-Longman (2000)Google Scholar
  7. Jones, S.V., Maiden, N.A.M., Zachos, K., Zhu, X.: How Service-Centric Systems Change the Requirements Process. In: Proceedings REFSQ 2005 Workshop, in conjunction with CaiSE 2005, 13–14, Porto, Portugal (2005)Google Scholar
  8. Leavitt, N.: Are Web Services Ready to Deliver? IEEE Computer 37(11), 14–18 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. Massonet, P., van Lamsweerde, A.: Formal refinement patterns for goal-driven requirements elaboration. In: Proceedings of FSE-4 - 4th ACM Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, pp. 179–190. ACM Press, San Fransisco (1996)Google Scholar
  10. Melloul, L., Fox, A.: Reusable Functional Composition Patterns for Web Services. In: Second International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2004), San Diego, CA, July 6-9 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. Miller, K.: Introduction to WordNet: an On-line Lexical Database. Distributed with the WordNet software (1993)Google Scholar
  12. Mijake, N.: Constructive Interaction and the Iterative Process of Understanding. Cognitive Science 10, 151–177 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pärssinen, J., Koponen, T., Eronen, P.: Pattern Language for Service Discovery. In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP 2004), Irsee, Germany, pp. 645–660 (July 2004)Google Scholar
  14. Pavan, P., Maiden, N.A.M., Zhu, X.: Towards a Systems Engineering Pattern Language: Applying i* to Model Requirements-Architecture Patterns. In: STRAW 2003, 2nd International Software Requirements and Architectures Workshop, ICSE 2003 (May 2003)Google Scholar
  15. Robertson, S., Robertson, J.: Mastering the Requirements Process. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1999)Google Scholar
  16. Sawyer, P., Hutchinson, J., Walkerdine, J., Sommerville, I.: Faceted Service Specification. In: Proceedings SOCCER (Service-Oriented Computing: Consequences for Engineering Requirements) Workshop, at RE 2005 Conference, Paris (August 2005)Google Scholar
  17. Schmid, K., Eisenbarth, M., Grund, M.: From Requirements Engineering to Knowledge Engineering: Challenges in Adaptive Systems. In: Proceedings SOCCER (Service-Oriented Computing: Consequences for Engineering Requirements) Workshop, at RE 2005 Conference, Paris (August 2005)Google Scholar
  18. Schütze, H., Pedersen, J.O.: Information retrieval based on word senses. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Document Analysis and Information Retrieval, vol. 4, pp. 161–175 (1995)Google Scholar
  19. Spanoudakis, G., Zisman, A., Kozlenkov, A.: A Service Discovery Framework for Service Centric Systems. In: IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, pp. 251–259. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (to appear, 2005)Google Scholar
  20. Sutcliffe, A.G., Maiden, N.A.M.: The Domain Theory for Requirements Engineering. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 24(3), 174–196 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tut, M.T., Edmond, D.: The Use of Patterns in Service Composition. In: International Workshop on Web Services, E-Business, and Semantic Web, pp. 28–40 (2002) (revised papers)Google Scholar
  22. Yu, E., Mylopoulos, J.M.: Understanding “Why” in Software Process Modelling, Analysis and Design. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 159–168. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zachos, K., Maiden, N.A.M.: Discovering Services During Requirements Processes, Technical Report, Centre for HCI Design, City University London (2006)Google Scholar
  24. Zhu, H., Maiden, N.A.M., Jones, S.V., Zachos, K.: Applying Patterns in Service Discovery. In: Proceedings SOCCER (Service-Oriented Computing: Consequences for Engineering Requirements) Workshop, at RE 2005 Conference, Paris (August 2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nektarios Dourdas
    • 1
  • Xiaohong Zhu
    • 2
  • Neil Maiden
    • 2
  • Sara Jones
    • 2
  • Konstantinos Zachos
    • 2
  1. 1.SAPWalldorfGermany
  2. 2.Centre for HCI DesignCity UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations