Cost-Sensitive Access Control for Illegitimate Confidential Access by Insiders
In many organizations, it is common to control access to confidential information based on the need-to-know principle; The requests for access are authorized only if the content of the requested information is relevant to the requester’s current information analysis project. We formulate such content-based authorization, i.e. whether to accept or reject access requests as a binary classification problem. In contrast to the conventional error-minimizing classification, we handle this problem in a cost-sensitive learning framework in which the cost caused by incorrect decision is different according to the relative importance of the requested information. In particular, the cost (i.e., damaging effect) for a false positive (i.e., accepting an illegitimate request) is more expensive than that of false negative (i.e., rejecting a valid request). The former is a serious security problem because confidential information, which should not be revealed, can be accessed. From the comparison of the cost-sensitive classifiers with error-minimizing classifiers, we found that the costing with a logistic regression showed the best performance, in terms of the smallest cost paid, the lowest false positive rate, and the relatively low false negative rate.
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